William Braell grew up in Palmyra, New York. He was always interested in science and always had chemistry sets. Braell settled on biochemistry halfway through college at Massachusetts Institute of Technoloogy, where he worked in Philip Robbins’ biochemistry lab his senior year. For his PhD, Braell chose to stay at MIT and work on band 3 membrane proteins of red in Harvey Lodish’s lab. Braell did his postdoctoral work at Stanford University, in the lab of James Rothman. Braell goes on to detail some of the advances in sciences, particularly in membrane studies. He focuses on the biochemistry involved in the enzymology of membrane fusion. He points out that his work has potential clinical implications: for the AIDS virus, for example, and for drug-protein interactions. Braell hopes to emulate his ideal scientist, Eugene Kennedy, and be still at the bench many years from now.
Michael D. Cole grew up in Ada, Ohio, the oldest of four children. Having excelled at math and physics in high school, he majored in physics at Ohio Northern University. He found biology more attractive as a career so he entered a PhD program at Johns Hopkins University, starting in Michael Beer’s lab. As a postdoc in Ru Chih Huang’s lab, Cole planned to study immunoglobulin but ended up working to characterize the myc gene instead. Cole accepted a position at St. Louis University, where he found the translocation and translocation breakpoint of myc, a major breakthrough in the study of cancer. He moved to Princeton Universityand has stayed with myc since, still seeking the binding site. He has two other related areas of interest: finding cofactors necessary for activating tumor growth and studying growth factor receptors.
Frank Costantini grew up in New York City. He was good in math and liked quantitative, objective subjects. He matriculated at Yale University, working on RNase Q in Sidney Altman’s lab. For graduate school Costantini chose California Institute of Technology, entering Eric Davidson’s lab to work on sea urchins. He went into Christopher Graham’s lab at University of Oxford to focus on molecular biology, especially as applied to mammals. There Costantini worked on deriving embryonic carcinoma cell lines to go into the germ line to make genetically altered mice. At first this did not work, but Costantini showed the possibility of getting into the germ line by injecting DNA directly into the nucleus of an egg, rather than into the cytoplasm. At Columbia Costantini can do whatever he can get funding for. He likes to figure out what can be done with a new and interesting technique rather than try to fit the technique to a specific project. He still works mostly on mammalian development biology and gene regulation. He says that embryonic stem (ES) cells can now enable mutations in all genes, and that his best collaboration is with Elizabeth Robertson and her ES cells work.
Joseph Craft was born in Wilson County, North Carolina. He did not leave the farm area except for school, a mile away, until college, when he attended the University of North Carolina (UNC) in Chapel Hill. Craft chose UNC for medical school, where he decided he wanted to be an academic clinician. Wanting further training, During his three busy years of residency he considered switching to research. After a further year in general medicine he accepted a postdoc in rheumatology at Yale.While doing his postdoc he did his clinical work in his spare time. He began by studying Lyme disease, but switched to autoimmunity in general. Craft discusses his early publications; explains how the Pew grant helped him make the transition from clinic to lab; talks about his collaborations with John Hardin and Tsuneyo Mimori; details his funding; and talks about competition, tenure, a typical day at the lab, and his administrative duties. Craft concludes his interview with reflections on the interaction between his clinical practice and his science work.
Emmett D. Crawford was born in Meridian, Mississippi, but grew up in Laurinburg, North Carolina. Interested in space, Crawford decided to major in meteorology at North Carolina State University, but when he heard that chemical engineering was the hardest subject he switched majors, intrigued by the challenge. Crawford’s professor, Richard Felder, said Crawford was the best problem solver he had ever seen, and Crawford managed an almost perfect record throughout college. For graduate school Crawford chose the University of Massachusetts at Amherst because their polymer science and engineering program was small and afforded personal attention. There he worked with Alan Lesser, a new professor, and published several papers on epoxy resins; from these publications he drew his dissertation. Wanting to use his PhD in industry, Crawford chose a job at Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, Tennessee. At Eastman TMCD (2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol) had been studied from a chemical perspective many times over the years, but Crawford brought his experience with materials science to studying it again and developed a new theory that produced a plastic combining durability with pliability, a theory that eventually was confirmed by small-scale testing. Supported by some of the management Crawford was able to bring what was given the name Tritan to commercial production. Crawford won the Society of Chemical Industry Gordon E. Moore Medal for developing Tritan.
Mark Davis grew up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He matriculated at Johns Hopkins University, where he majored in biology because he thought it answered important questions. He worked in Michael Beer’s lab, trying to sequence DNA with a transfer scanning microscope. His advisors suggested graduate studies at California Institute of Technology (Caltech). There he eventually settled in Leroy Hood's laboratory, where he worked successfully with Philip Early, an early molecular biologist. Davis cloned the first mouse genomic library. His next move was to National Institutes of Health. In William Paul’s lab he designed a general technology to find genes expressed at very low levels. Recognizing that T-cell receptors are important for immunology, Davis, the only molecular biologist in his department, began his work on T-cell receptors, work that continues today.
Peter DeCarlo grew up in West Lafayette, Indiana. His father is a professor at Purdue University and his mother is a teacher. DeCarlo majored in biochemistry at the University of Notre Dame and learned mass spectrometry during an internship at American Cyanamid Company. Between college and graduate school DeCarlo spent a year in Kenya. At the University of Colorado he joined Jose-Luis Jimenez’s atmospheric research group and did fieldwork in Mexico and Canada. DeCarlo accepted a National Science Foundation postdoctoral award to work at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, then an American Association for the Advancement of Science fellowship to work in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where he became involved with the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. DeCarlo is Assistant Professor of Engineering and Chemistry at Drexel University where he is conducting local and regional atmospheric research, characterizing and developing Aerodyne mass spectrometers, and promoting scientific understanding.
Sandra J.F. Degen grew up in the San Fernando Valley, outside of Los Angeles, California, one of four children. Her father was a scientist and her mother a seamstress and homemaker. It was expected that the children would go to college, and Sandra chose the University of California, San Diego, where she majored inchemistry. She worked on fibrinogen in Russell Doolittle’s lab. Sandra undertook graduate work in Earl Davie’s lab at the University of Washington, completing her PhD thesis on human prothrombin. Edward Reich, who had just left Rockefeller University for Meischer Institut in Basel, Switzerland, recruited Sandra and her husband. After two years there, they returned to the states and both accepted assistant professorships in the pediatrics department at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.
Catherine Fenselau grew up in York, Nebraska. Always interested in science, first archaeology and ultimately chemistry, she attended Bryn Mawr College. The chairman of the chemistry department, Ernst Berliner, became the first of her three mentors. Fenselau received her PhD in organic chemistry from Stanford University, working in the lab of Carl Djerassi, who became her second mentor. For her postdoc at Berkeley, she entered Calvin Melvin’s lab, working directly with Alma Burlingame, then at Johns Hopkins University she worked on a broad range of biomedical problems, and her research shifted its direction more toward biochemistry. Her third mentor, Paul Talalay, helped her buy her first spectrometer, which she used for bacterial analysis and for research into anti-cancer treatments. Fenselau accepted the chairmanship of the chemistry department at University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where she established a regional mass spectrometry center. She began analyzing whole proteins, publishing papers about using mass spectrometry to map protein topography and about HIV Gag proteins. Fenselau moved to University of Maryland, College Park, for a two-year stint as chairman of the chemistry department. She was involved in the study of anthrax—Amerithrax—promoting the rapid detection and characterization of bacteria with mass spectrometry and she established the US Human Proteomics Organization (USHUPO), becoming its first president. She continues to teach and to conduct research in proteomics and bioinformatics.
John R. Ferraro was born and grew up in Chicago, Illinois. He attended Richard T. Crane Technical High School, then worked at General Motors for three years before entering Illinois Institute of Technology, majoring in chemistry, working with Norman Kharasch. After graduation, Ferraro entered the U.S. Army and was sent to Grand Rapids, Michigan, for training in meteorology. He spent the remaining three and a half years of World War II in the Burma-China-India theater. Ferraro earned a master’s degree from Northwestern University, working under Charles Hurd. Next he accepted a position at Argonne National Laboratory, working in solvent extraction. He became interested in infrared spectroscopy, then far-infrared (FIR). Ferraro wrote the seminal work on far-infrared spectroscopy and bought the first dedicated FIR instruments from Beckman Instruments and PerkinElmer. He taught at Loyola University in Chicago for five years, spent a year at the Lunar Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, learning Fourier transform (FTIR) spectroscopy, then moved back to Argonne, where he spent a total of fifty-seven years. Ferraro discusses his students; his theory about innovation; his travels and interactions with colleagues around the world; his publications; his interest in history and his genealogy; and his continuing affiliation with three museums. He talks about instrumentation and the nexus between technique and equipment; what he sees as the enormous improvements in instruments; the serendipity of Fourier transform and what it has made possible; and miniaturization.
Roberta A. Sanchez Gottlieb grew up on a cattle ranch near Albuquerque, New Mexico. She was heavily influenced by her parents who valued education and curiosity, and had several influential teachers in school who contributed to her intellectual development. Gottlieb matriculated at Bryn Mawr College, but almost immediately transferred to Johns Hopkins University, where she undertook biophysical research with Michael Beers, focusing on electron microscopy and developed an interest in microtubule assembly, She stayed at Johns Hopkins for medical school and completed her residency at University of Texas Health Science, focusing on pediatrics and hematology-oncology. She also worked with Steven Buescher on neutrophils in the department of infectious diseases. After two postdocs, she moved to a position at Scripps Research Institute.
Mihal Gross attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At MIT, Gross's wide-ranging interests led her to explore chemical oceanography, chemical engineering, and materials science, while also enjoying the intense freshman chemistry classes and labs, ultimately leading her to major in chemistry as the central science around which her multidisciplinary interests revolved. Gross pursued graduate research in organometallic photochemistry at Northwestern University, where she received her PhD. Gross joined AT&T Bell Laboratories as a Member of Technical Staff in 1981. Her research focused on the emerging areas of chemical vapor deposition, laser and ion beam direct-write, and other aspects of thin film science related to electrical, optical, and superconducting properties of materials for high performance integrated circuits and devices. She discusses founding the Chemical Perspectives of Microelectronic Materials Symposium at the annual Materials Research Society conference to highlight the importance of chemistry in the semiconductor revolution in the context of a multidisciplinary venue. After twenty years at Bell Labs she was selected as the AAAS/RAND Science and Technology Policy Fellow at RAND, conducting studies on the impact of government policies on science and technology workforce issues and technology transition of federally funded research for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. She moved to the Office of Naval Research as Program Officer for the Functional Solid State and Nanostructured Materials Program and currently serves as Program Manager for the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science's Nanoscale Science Research Centers and Electron Beam Microcharacterization Centers.
Franz Hillenkamp was born in Essen, Germany. Having chosen the science and math track in the Gymnasium Hillenkamp went on to major in electrical engineering at Technische Universität München (TUM). He interrupted his diploma thesis on vacuum systems to accept a Fulbright Scholarship to Purdue University, where he obtained a master’s degree. Returning to TUM he finished his thesis and married. Hillenkamp’s first job was with the Federal Department of Science and Technology, where he taught himself lasers and worked with them for fourteen years. During this time he also got his PhD, writing his thesis on energy meters for Q-switch lasers. Hillenkamp met Raimund Kaufmann and the two began a long-lasting collaboration; eventually this collaboration led Hillenkamp and Michael Karas to the invention of, first, laser-induced microprobe mass analysis, or LAMMA; and then matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, or MALDI, which has been profoundly important in biology. Researching the safety of lasers led Hillenkamp to found a laser-tissue interaction laboratory; this lab became the prototype for the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Hillenkamp held a position at J. W. Goethe Universität in Frankfurt before moving to the University of Münster, where he became chair and Director of the Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics. At that time Münster was considered the center of mass spectrometry in Germany. Hillenkamp has also held visiting positions at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Università degli Studi di Napoli, University of Maryland in Munich, and other places. He helped develop a submission for the Excellence Initiative before he retired.
Darleane Hoffman was born in Terril, Iowa. She graduated high school in 1944 as co-valedictorian of her class and decided to enter Iowa State College, Ames to study applied art; Prof. Nellie Naylor’s required freshman chemistry class changed her mind. Hoffman found chemistry “the most interesting, most logical, most useful” possible subject. During her senior year, she began undergraduate research with Prof. Don Martin at the newly completed Synchrotron, and continued research for her PhD there, receiving her degree in only three years. In 1952 Hoffman took a position at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. She was then promised a position in the Radiochemistry Division at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, New Mexico, but there was nothing in writing and Hoffmann encountered numerous roadblocks, including being told “We don’t hire women in that Division” to having her Q-clearance lost. Finally, in March 1953 she managed to join Dr. Roderick Spence’s Radiochemistry group. She published many papers on radiochemical separations and the discovery of Plutonium-244 in nature. During the years in Los Alamos she received a Guggenheim award to work in Berkeley with Glenn Seaborg and became the first woman technical division leader. In 1984 Hoffman was offered a tenured professorship in the Chemistry Department at UC Berkeley, the second woman full professor, and became Heavy Element Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group Leader at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her group confirmed the discovery of element 106, enabling the discoverers to propose the name Seaborgium and she led the struggle with IUPAC to finally confirm it in 1997. She also co-founded the Seaborg Institutes for Transactinium Sciences at Livermore in 1996 and later at Berkeley and Los Alamos. Hoffman won the 1997 National Medal of Science and the Priestley Award in 2000.
Catherine T. Hunt grew up in Bronxville, New York, one of seven children. Her father was a chemist at Allied Chemical Company, and Katie often went to work with him and always had questions for him about why things are the way they are. A good chemistry teacher in high school only strengthened her determination to be a chemist. To that end she entered Smith College. During her summers she worked at Stauffer Chemical Company. She realized she needed a PhD, so she applied to the University of California system, choosing Davis. There she worked with Alan Balch and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Hunt accepted a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellowship at Yale University, studying with Drs. Ian Armitage, Robert Shulman, and James Prestegard. When she began to interview for jobs she found Linda Benner and several others from Davis at Rohm and Haas; she also found a friendly and supportive atmosphere there, and took the job. She later became a process chemist and then lab manager of the Bridesburg plant. When downsized from Rohm and Haas in 1995 she moved back to Spring House in Analytical Research, ultimately becoming the director of the Analytical and Computational Competency Network. Persuaded to run for president of American Chemical Society (ACS), Hunt developed a platform emphasizing education in science, including legislators, the media, the public, and the next generation.After her year in office, Hunt returned to Rohm and Haas as the first Corporate Sustainability Director, as well as resuming her former role in Technology Partnerships. When Dow acquired Rohm and Haas on April 1, 2009, Hunt move into an expanded role in their External Technologies Group (ET); soon to be renamed: Innovation Sourcing and Sustainable Technologies.
Enrique Iglesia was born in Havana, Cuba; his family then moved to Mexico, where they lived for six months while awaiting papers to enter the United States. Iglesia matriculated at Princeton University intending to major in chemical engineering; he had summer internships at Exxon, after which he became interested in catalysis. He chose Stanford for his PhD and began research in Michel Boudart’s group, working on the applicability of model systems to real-world catalysis. After he completed his degree, he accepted a job offer from Exxon and soon advanced to the position of section head, supervising about fifty scientists and support staff. Ready to return to academia he accepted University of California, Berkeley’s offer; he also became a consultant to Catalytic Associates. Iglesia participated in a BP-organized collaboration of scientists from Caltech and Berkeley, called Methane Conversion Cooperative, which lasted ten years. Since then he has started a new, smaller, group, the X Conversion Cooperative, which has reached its fifth year. In recent years, Iglesia's group has been working on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, as well as other reactions of C1 molecules, such as carbonylation and tripane synthesis. In addition, Chevron Corporation has been funding research into zeolites, which the Cooperative has learned to form around a precursor and van der Waals interactions and he has been co-editor in chief of the Journal of Catalysis.
Doron Levin grew up in Johannesburg, South Africa, one of four children. Levin followed the science track in high school, and he was inspired to study chemistry when he attended an after-school program called geology, paleontology, and petrochemistry. He entered the chemical engineering department at the University of Witwatersrand with a bursary from Sasol. Since there was no scope for advanced degrees in South Africa, Levin entered Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) PhD program. During a summer internship at Exxon he worked with Stuart Soled, who has remained a friend as well as colleague. Levin obtained a master’s degree in chemical engineering practice from having attended the David H. Koch School of Chemical Engineering Practice and a PhD in chemical engineering from MIT. Levin accepted a job with Mobil Oil Company, continuing his catalysis work. When Mobil merged with Exxon Corporation Levin was assigned to a team working on methanol to olefins (MTO). He was transferred to Process Research to support the manufacture of catalysts and was tasked with developing the next generation of catalysts. He discovered TransPlusNG. From there he moved to Hydroprocessing, where he worked with Soled to develop Nebula, which is based on his summer intern work with nickel molybdates. Levin is now an integrated project team leader (IPTL), but he will soon return to Catalyst Technology, this time as a Section Head, responsible for developing the professionals in his section as well as his own leadership qualities.
W. Ian Lipkin was born in Chicago, Illinois and studied anthropology at Sarah Lawrence College, though a class on inorganic chemistry aroused an interest in science. Wanting to combine his interest in primitive people with his desire to be of service, he attended medical school, studying infectious diseases. During his residency with the University of Washington, he was sent to a Veterans Administration hospital in Idaho, an experience he found to be intense. While at University of California, San Francisco, he became interested in AIDS patients with neurological diseases. After a postdoc at Scripps Research Institute, he accepted an assistant professorship at University of California, Irvine, where he is now Co-Director of the Markey Program in Human Biology.
James A. McCloskey, Jr., grew up in San Antonio, Texas. He entered Trinity University in San Antonio, where he majored in chemistry; he earned a PhD in analytical chemistry from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After fulfilling his ROTC commitment by working for the US Army Chemical Corps, McCloskey returned to Klaus Biemann’s lab at MIT, where he began his lifelong interest in and study of nucleosides/nucleotides, necessitating different types of mass spectrometers. He turned down the Karolinska Institutet for a job at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. He began a twenty-year collaboration with Susumu Nishimura in Tokyo, Japan, and made his first of many trips there. His lab discovered the nucleoside Q. He began his part of the search for the roots of the tree of life, which consists of bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. McCloskey spent six months of a sabbatical at the National Cancer Research Institute in Tokyo before going to the University of Utah as a visiting professor. He decided to accept a full professorship there. McCloskey became secretary, vice president, then president of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS).
Harold McNair grew up in Miami, Arizona, one of two sons. His parents worked in the local copper mines; they were not highly educated, but they valued education and encouraged Harold. He did well in school but also loved sports, playing tennis especially well. He attended the University of Arizona where he majored in chemistry and minored in physics. McNair entered Purdue University’s PhD program and worked in industry during the summers. Fascinated by instrumentation, he met A. J. P. Martin at Amoco and cemented his interest in gas chromatography (GC). At a GC meeting J. J. Van Deemter encouraged him to build Purdue’s first gas chromatograph. McNair’s next stop was Eindhoven, the Netherlands, for a Fulbright Scholarship, working with A. I. M. Keulemans. He returned to the United States to a job at Esso, studying rocket fuels for the US Department of Defense. In addition to his regular duties McNair wrote Basic Gas Chromatography. After a year he left Esso for F&M Scientific, and they moved back to Amsterdam. After three years McNair went to Varian, Inc., to be director of European operations. McNair was recruited by two of his former Purdue professors to take a professorship at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). With some of his students McNair established COLACRO (Congress in Latin America about Chromatography), which has taught short courses and introduced GC into almost all of the countries in Latin America.
Delbert Meyer discusses his upbringing in Maynard, Iowa and his initial uncertainty about his future career, leading to his decision to serve for two years in the U.S. Navy. Later, his professors at Wartburg College and the University of Iowa encouraged his interest in chemistry, contributing to his thirty-nine years with Amoco. He started his career as an exploratory researcher then as a research consultant, eventually developing a faster and more economical method for producing purified terephthalic acid (PTA), and later winning the 1995 Perkin Medal.
Seymour Meyerson was born and raised in Chicago, Illinois and attended the University of Chicago from which he received his undergraduate degree. By 1943 Meyerson began active service with the U.S. military, spending the majority of his time with the Signal Corps; he also performed important work as the technical liaison officer between the Manhattan District and Standard Oil Company (Indiana). His time with the military afforded him the opportunity to be trained in electronics and to encounter his first mass spectrometer. In 1946 Meyerson started what would become a nearly forty year career with Standard Oil Company (Indiana) (later the Amoco Corporation). From the outset, Meyerson was involved with the mass spectrometry group, first conducting quantitative gas analysis on gases and low-boiling liquids, consisting of hydrocarbons and fixed gases.
Foil A. Miller was involved early on with Pittcon and its two founding groups, the Spectroscopy Society of Pittsburgh and the Society of Analytical Chemists of Pittsburgh. In his preliminary interview Miller outlines some of the changes in the field of instrumentation that he has observed during the course of his career and reflects on some of the key individuals in instrument entrepreneurship. An interview conducted ten years later focuses on his personal biography. Inspired by a high school science teacher to study chemistry, he attended Hamline University, then went onto graduate school at Johns Hopkins. Miller spent much of his career in academia and research, taking positions at the National Research Council, the University of Minnesota, the Mellon Institute, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Russell A. Mittermeier discusses the involvement and increasing support of Gordon E. Moore in Conservation International, especially his contribution to building the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. He describes Moore as a good match with Conservation International given Moore’s appreciation of its scientific approach and organizational management, leading the board of directors and transforming the organization at large. Lastly, Mittermeier reflects on how Moore’s experience at Conservation International influenced the founding of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and notes the Moores’ influence in attracting Silicon Valley to the cause of conservation.
This oral history with Gordon T. Moore and Jay T. Last focuses on the years 1956 and 1957, during which time Moore and Last worked at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory and Fairchild Semiconductor was founded. This transcript is about the life of ideas and the people who brought those ideas to fruition; Moore and Last reflect on their experiences during these years while flipping through an old notebook that documented various aspects of the meetings they had over an eighteen month period. In order to fully understand this oral history, the reader must consult the Supplement to Gordon E. Moore and Jay T. Last Oral History, oral history number 0327S, which is also part of the Chemical Heritage Foundation’s collection.
In this interview, Herbert Morawetz traces his early life prior to leaving Czechoslovakia on the Nazi invasion and resettling in Canada, where he studied chemical engineering at the University of Toronto. He describes his introduction to industrial research work and his consequent Ph.D. study at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and late postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Medical School. Morawetz also reflects on the future of polymer education and on international scientific collaboration.
Paul Morgan discusses his upbringing in Maine, his undergraduate studies at the University of Maine, his graduate research at Ohio State University on naturally-occuring plant pigments, and his post-doctoral work on cellulose derivatives. He describes his Du Pont investigations of the synthesis of polymers, with particular emphasis on interfacial polycondensation. Incorporated into the interview are Morgan's reflections on scientific publication from an industrial setting.
This interview covers the life of Koji Nakanishi from his early education in Egypt to his current work as Professor of Chemistry at Columbia University and Director of the Suntory Institute for Bioorganic Research in Japan. Nakanishi also comments on his education in wartime Japan, his fellowship years at Harvard University, and his research on the structure of natural products and their mode of action, and the development and use of infrared spectroscopy, NMR, and circular dichroism. He concludes by briefly discussing his avocation, magic, and some general comments on the future of organic chemistry.
Samuel Natelson discusses his upbringing in Brooklyn, New York, having earned his B.S. in chemistry at the City College of New York and his Sc.M. and Ph.D. at New York University. While beginning his academic career at Girls Commercial High School, Natelson also worked as a clinical chemist at the Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn, where he first conceived the idea of a society by and for clinical chemists. Eventually, Natelson became a pioneer in the field of clinical chemistry, organizing the nine charter members of the American Association of Clinical Chemists, acting as a consultant to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and later still pursuing a career as an educator.
Donna J. Nelson discusses her childhood in Eufaula, Oklahoma, where she was greatly influenced by her parents, especially her step-father, the town’s only physician. Nelson joined the chemistry department at the University of Oklahoma, where she struggled for parity with the male students, and later went on to do graduate work at the University of Texas, Austin with Michael J.S. Dewar and post-doctorate work at Purdue University as Herbert C. Brown’s first female post-doctorate. In addition to her role as faculty member of the University of Oklahoma chemistry department, Nelson also conducted surveys of women and minorities in the top chemistry departments and researched issues surrounding women and minorities in chemistry and the sciences.
Roy G. Neville comments on his family and his childhood in Bournemouth, England during the start of World War II, while admitting that he was not very intrigued by his first chemistry lesson but enjoyed performing experiments. Neville eventually earned his master’s degree and Ph.D. in the U.S. at the University of Oregon, later establishing Engineering and Technical Consultants, Inc. to help chemists in industry. As an entrepreneur, Neville spent more of his time and money on his rare book collection and the creation of The Roy G. Neville Historical Chemical Library at the Chemical Heritage Foundation.
Melvin S. Newman, an eminent organic chemist, comments on his undergraduate and graduate work at Yale and his experiences at Ohio State University, where he spent most of his academic career researching, advising, and teaching both in the classroom and laboratory. Newman also discusses his publications, use of the innovative "Newman Projection," consulting, patents, and awards.
Nico M. Nibbering was born in Zaandam, the Netherlands, one of eight children. When school resumed after World War II, Nibbering did well and tested into high school, where he chose the science and mathematics track and where his physics and chemistry teachers influenced him to attend college. He entered the University of Amsterdam and majored in chemistry under Thymen de Boer. Nibbering also obtained his master’s and PhD degrees there and became head of the mass spectrometry department. He refined his interest in gas phase ion chemistry during a few months spent in Fred McLafferty’s lab at Cornell University and became entranced with a Fourier transform (FT) instrument. Back at home he and James Dawson transformed a drift cell ion machine into an FT spectrometer in just a year. When he considered leaving for Utrecht University, the University of Amsterdam established a research institute for him. Nibbering is retired, but his fascination with mass spectrometry continues undiminished. He is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, and he is still editor of the Wiley-Interscience Series on Mass Spectrometry.
Raised primarily by his widowed mother, James Burton Nichols won scholarships to finance his studies of chemistry at Cornell University where he conducted a senior research project with Wilder D. Bancroft. Nichols went to Wisconsin where he was introduced to sedimentation techniques by a construction of a pioneer optical centrifuge and its use in pigment characterization, and he later was involved in the early development of the ultra-centrifuge. Nichols later had a long career at Du Pont, from applying ultracentrifugal techniques to industrial problems to contributing to the evolution of new instruments and polymer characterization.
Alfred O. C. Nier was born in Minnesota in 1911 to parents who had emigrated from Germany. Having been interested in radios during high school, Nier decided to study electrical engineering when he enrolled at the University of Minnesota in 1927. When he graduated in 1931 he pursued engineering jobs; however, few firms were hiring due to the Depression. Nier earned a master’s degree in electrical engineering, though most of his research experience was in physics; he began his doctoral research at a time when quantum mechanics and X-rays were burgeoning fields of study. After much deliberation Nier chose to work with John Tate, head of the physics department. Subsequently, Tate assigned Nier to work on mass spectrometry and in the mid-1930s Nier built his first mass spectrometer. Nier spent the majority of his doctoral research obtaining a precise understanding of how mass spectrometers worked and how he could improve the instruments to enhance his isotopic abundance studies. After completing his Ph.D. in 1936, Nier was awarded a National Research Council Fellowship. He elected to work with Kenneth T. Bainbridge at Harvard University. By December Nier began establishing more precise isotopic abundances than the ones F. W. Aston produced in 1915. Nier returned to the University of Minnesota after completing his post-doctoral research in 1938 beginning a long career in mass spectrometry at his alma mater. In the fall of 1939 Nier became involved in work related to uranium-235 and UF6/UBr4 (Nier refers to UF6 in the interview but references UBr4 in some publications). Nier, with E.T. Booth, J.R. Dunning, and A.V. Grosse, demonstrated conclusively via mass spectrometry that uranium-235 was the isotope that underwent slow neutron fission. As his research group at Minnesota was the only group capable of analyzing uranium he was ordered to begin separating uranium-235 on his 180° mass spectrometer. After Pearl Harbor and the United States’s official entry into World War II, Nier and his research team worked under the command of Harold C. Urey as part of the Manhattan Project. Nier’s mass spectrometry expertise would prove invaluable to the war effort. After World War II, Nier returned to the University of Minnesota where he remained as a Professor. Nier’s post-war mass spectrometry research touched on many areas including electrical detection, atmospheric studies and mass spectrometers for rockets, geochemistry, and precise masses. Nier participated in the upper atmosphere Aerobee flights throughout the 1960s, the Viking Project in the 1970s, and the Pioneer Venus project. During this atmospheric work Nier became friends and collaborators with Klaus Biemann. Throughout his oral history Nier discusses his many publications, the instrument details of many mass spectrometers, his awards, and his interesting career. Nier explained that his short attention span and unique education in physics and electrical engineering allowed him to capitalize on the new field of mass spectrometry when the country needed his expertise most.
Frank R. Nissel recounts his upbringing and multi-lingual education in Berlin, Germany and Egypt during the rise of Hilter’s regime. He later earned his M.S. in chemical engineering at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute in 1946, and eventually pursued a successful career at Union Carbide Corporation and then as co-founder of Prodex Corporation and Welex. Nissel used his mechanical instincts to revolutionize plastics machinery by making it more efficient and less expensive than its competitors, and in time was honored membership into the Plastics Hall of Fame.
Donald Noyces comments on his childhood in Iowa, his years at Grinnell College, his experience at Columbia University as a graduate student, and his position at the University of California at Berkeley. Noyce also discusses the faculty, the chemistry administration, the changing atmosphere with respect to organic chemistry, his research, and his graduate students. Finally, he discusses the development of physical organic chemistry from the turn of the century to 1980.
George A. Olah reflects on winning the 1994 Nobel Prize in chemistry and discusses his upbringing in Budapest, Hungary, where he earned a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Technical University of Budapest. With the collapse of the Iron Wall, Olah and his family eventually immigrated to Ontario, Canada where he became a research scientist at the Dow Chemical Company but later became a professor at Western Reserve University. Olah was instrumental in the merging of Western Reserve University and Case Institute of Technology, forming Case Western Reserve University, but eventually left to become director of the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute.
Miguel A. Ondetti starts his interview by describing his upbringing in Argentina, where he was broadly trained in chemistry at the University of Buenos Aires and offered a Ph.D. scholarship and a research opportunity at The Squibb Institute. Ondetti eventually relocated to the U.S. in New Jersey and worked in the peptide synthesis field and pharmaceutical research, while collaborating with scientists in both industry and academia during his career.
Paul Oreffice describes his interests in entering a commercial career and his career at Dow, reflecting on the development of Dow International and Dow in general as a place for world innovation in plant engineering and product development. Oreffice also offers his views on environmental concerns and government regulations. Oreffice also discusses the chemical industry and Dow in light of industry changes, such as internationalization and consolidation.
Donald Othmer discusses his upbringing in Omaha, Nebraska, his studies at the Armour Institute, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Michigan, and his experience at Eastman Kodak and Poly Tech. Othmer also recounts his adventures in Burma, his association with the Government during World War II, the inception of the Encyclopedia of Chemical technology, and the Chemists’ Club.
Rudolph Pariser’s life has been significantly shaped by the historical events of the 20th century, from being born in China since his mother found refuge there during Russian Revolution while his father escaped from his Russian captives, to being taught in Tokyo as a result of the Japanese invasion of China, and eventually permanently relocating to California due to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Pariser continued his education at the University of California at Berkeley, earning his degree in chemical technology there and later his Ph.D. in physical chemistry at the University of Minnesota after his military service. Pariser then started a long and successful career at DuPont, originally as a Research Chemist but eventually rising through the ranks of research management owing to his contribution to the development of PPP theory; DuPont recognized Pariser for his technical achievement by awarding him the Lavoisier Medal in 2003.
After his formative years Ogden, Utah, Robert W. Parry attended Weber College but earned his B.S. from Utah State University, his M.S. from Cornell University, and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois. Parry’s career includes performing research for the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and positions at E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, the Munitions Development Laboratory at the University of Illinois, the University of Michigan, and the University of Utah. Later, Parry became involved with the Gordon Research Conferences [GRC], serving as conference chairman, an executive committee member, and chairman of the board of directors.
Linus Pauling traces his interest in science since his formative years, from gathering laboratory equipment and conducting chemistry experiments in his home, working in his high school’s chemistry laboratory, to supporting himself during his undergraduate years by tending to the chemistry department stockroom at Oregon State Agricultural College. As a graduate student at Caltech, Pauling was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to study in Zurich, where he later developed the theory of the three-electron bond.
Roy Plunkett discusses his upbringing, his family ties to the Church of the Brethren, his undergraduate studies in chemistry at Manchester College, his graduate work in carbohydrate chemistry at Ohio State University, and his friendship with Paul Flory. Plunkett eventually started to work for DuPont where he began synthesis of tetrafluoroethylene, which was later central to his pioneer work with Teflon.
Vladimir Prelog reflects on his long and distinguished career as an organic chemist, from his formative years in Yugoslavia, his doctoral studies in Prague, his academic involvement at the Technical Faculty of the University of Zagreb, to his research at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH). At ETH, Prelog has worked with the chemistry of natural products and stereochemistry while collaborating with Cahn and Ingold to create the CIP system for defining absolute configuration.
Charles Price discusses his career as a chemist, from his undergraduate studies at Swarthmore College, his graduate work at Harvard University, his faculty appointments, to his research for the National Defense Research Committee during World War II. Price played an influential role as chairman of the department of chemistry at the University of Notre Dame and then later at University of Pennsylvania, while he also conducted research in physical organic chemistry.
Malcolm Pruitt recounts his early life in Texas and his struggles to complete his undergraduate education during the Depression. As a control chemist at Dow, Pruitt began his extensive studies of the ionic polymerization of cyclic oxide monomers and eventually moved into senior research management. Pruitt also reflects on his initiatory role in the formation of the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology and the Council for Chemical Research.
In this second interview, Malcolm Pruitt reflects on the history and successes of the Council for Chemical Research, describing its origins as deriving from his concern for the poor cooperation between university and industry, thus causing Pruitt to establish a task force which led to the founding of the Council. Pruitt also discusses the American Chemical Society.
George Rathmann discusses his upbringing in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, his undergraduate work in physical chemistry at Northwestern University, and later his graduate studies in physical chemistry at Princeton University. Rathmann has a successful industrious career, from working as a research chemist at 3M Company to acting as Vice-President of Research and Development at Abbott Laboratories, where he became greatly interested in recombinant DNA. Later in his career, Rathmann became more involved in the world of biotechnology and biotech companies.
Mark A. Ratner discusses his upbringing in Cleveland, Ohio, his undergraduate years at Harvard University, his graduate studies at Northwestern University, and his postdoctoral fellowship in Denmark and Munich. Afterwards, Ratner began working at New York University while exploring molecular electronics, but returned to Northwestern as a faculty member in the Chemistry Department. Ratner also reflects on his collaborations with IBM and DARPA, his experiences as organizing chair and a member of the board of directors for the Gordon Research Conferences (GRC), and on the future of nanotechnology.
Harold J. Read describes his family background and his upbringing in Illinois, where he also earned his B.S. and M.A. from the University of Illinois but Read later relocated to the University of Pennsylvania where his Ph.D. research brought him into the area of metallurgy. Read also worked for the Mellon Institute where his metal-work eventually led to equipment design and manufacturing prototypes for the Manhattan Project. Read was also greatly involved in the Electrochemical Society, eventually becoming its President while overlooking its publications.
Charles Reed discusses his upbringing in Findlay, Ohio, later earning his B.S. in chemistry from the Case School of Applied Science but pursued a D.Sc. in both chemistry and chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While teaching as an assistant professor, Reed also began to consult for various companies and later started a long career at the General Electric Company. In time, Reed gradually moved up the management ladder as he worked with various materials, like organosilicon polymers, phenolic laminates, the commercial development of synthetic diamonds, and the development of both polycarbonates and polyphenylene oxide.
Elsa Reichmanis discusses her family’s immigration to the United States and her childhood in Syracuse, New York, where she also obtained her B.S. and Ph.D. in chemistry from Syracuse University. Later, Reichmanis took a technical staff position at AT&T Bell Laboratories, which is currently known as Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, and eventually she was promoted to director. Reichmanis describes her work, which involves photonic research and deep-UV lithography, while also offering her views on Valerie J. Kuck’s research on women in chemistry, the definition of innovation, and the future of chemistry.
Tadeus Reichstein discusses his long and distinguished career as an organic chemist, recalling his early education in Germany and Switzerland and eventually coming to work at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH). Later, Reichstein moved to the Pharmaceutical Institute at Basel, where he began work in Vitamin C synthesis, cortisone, and other adrenal hormones and glycosides, all of which led to his Nobel Prize in 1950.
After studying chemistry at the University of Idaho, Malcolm Renfrew joined George Glockler at Minnesota for research on Raman spectroscopy but later joined Arlington laboratories of du Pont where he became involved in plastics development and Teflon. Renfrew also expresses an interest in health and safety in the chemical environment as he reflects on his career in industry, which includes his ascension through the research management ladder at General Mills and Spencer Kellogg. Renfrew eventually returned to his alma mater to teach and lead the physical science department.
Francis O. Rice discusses his upbringing in England, his studies at Princeton, his teaching career at New York University, and his research and administrative activities at Johns Hopkins University and the Catholic University of America. Rice also recounts his theory on free radicals and assesses the place of science in Catholic universities and an explanation of the Laidler-ADX controversy of the mid 1950's.
Rebecca Rimel begins this brief interview with a discussion of the circumstances that led to the formation by The Pew Charitable Trusts of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences. She discusses the roles of the Board and the Advisory Committee in determining the mission and aims of the Program, then turns her attention to evolutionary changes that have taken place in the Program over the course of its first five years. After describing the activities and expectations of the Pew Scholars, the interview concludes with Pew’s plans for Scholars Programs in areas other than the biomedical sciences.
John Roberts discusses his upbringing and the impact of Caltech on his interests in chemistry, and goes to describe his studies at UCLA, his brief time at Penn State, and his research at Harvard on the National Research Council Fellowship. Having become acquainted with Cope and other faculty members at MIT, Roberts eventually left MIT for a position at Caltech.
Ivan Maxwell Robinson discusses his upbringing in Nova Scotia, eventually earning a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Acadia University, a master’s degree from the University of Toronto, and his Ph.D. from Purdue University. Afterwards, Robinson led a successful career at DuPont, as both a research chemist and a supervisor, accredited with chemical innovations like coordination polymerization and copolymers of ethylene-sulfur dioxide. Robinson later joined Indiana University as a visiting scientist, taught genealogy at the Academy of Lifelong Learning, and was awarded the Lavoisier Medal for Technical Achievement.
Robert Robson discusses his upbringing in South Dakota, his involvement with the Army, his interests in electronics, and his involvement with the electronics and semiconductor industries. Robson describes his employment at Farnsworth Electronics Incorporated, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, Amelco, Teledyne, Intersil, and Microma. Robson also discusses his interactions with Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, Andrew Grove and his friendship with Gordon and Betty Moore.
Eugene G. Rochow discusses his family background in Germany, his upbringing in New Jersey, and his early interests in electricity and silicon which led him to pursue degrees in chemistry at Cornell University where he worked as an assistant for Louis M. Dennis and Alfred Stock. Rochow has an extensive career in silicone production, including ethyl phenyl silicone and methyl silicone, and research on nuclear fission as a source of domestic energy but later resigned from this work because of his Quaker beliefs. Rochow also comments on his teaching at Harvard University and his Perkin Medal.
Arthur Rock discusses his life, including his service in the United States Army during World War II, his undergraduate years at Syracuse University, and his graduate studies at Harvard Business School. Rock worked on Wall Street when he discovered his interest in business technology, eventually working to establish technological companies such as General Transistor and later became involved in venture capitalism and semiconductor firms. Rock reflects on the successes of his firms, Davis & Rock and Teledyne Technologies, and comments on the growing connection between semiconductors and computers.
Robert Roland describes his family background and upbringing in Upper Darby, PA, as well as his education at Villanova University and the University of Pennsylvania School of Law. Roland also reflects on his career in the U.S. Navy as General Counsel and Contract Administrator, and his appointment as president of the Chemical Manufacturers Association [CMA]. Roland discusses his role in developing the industry's standards for safety, health, the environment, management training, and finally the industry’s future.
George Rosenkranz was born in Budapest, Hungary and studied chemical engineering at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. While en-route to Ecuador to assume an academic position at the University of Quito, Rosenkranz decided to stay in Havana and eventually started a career in industry, most notably at Syntex Corporation where he climbed the managerial ranks to CEO. Rosenkranz concludes the interview with a discussion of Syntex’s growth and future endeavors.
James Roth recounts his formative yeas at the Bronx High School of Science in Bronx, New York, his early interests in research and physical chemistry, and his service in Iwo Jima. Roth reflects on his career in industry, from his work on solid propellants and photochemical smog at the Franklin Institute, his safe production of synthetic rubber, and his research on heterogeneous catalyst and homogeneous catalysis at Monsanto Company. Roth also discusses a successful patent process, the learning curve for developing technology, the need for empowerment of chemists, and the chemical industry, its future, and the industrial parameters chemists need to achieve their full potential.
Louis Rubens discusses his early life in Escanaba, Michigan, the development of his interests in mathematics and chemistry, and his difficulties in finishing his studies when Jordan College closed due to financial difficulties, leaving Rubens to earn only an associate’s degree. Unable to transfer to another institution, Rubens took a position at Dow and in time rose through the ranks of research, working on the stabilization and impact enhancement of polystyrene, the production of co-polymers, and the development of the composite foam system. Rubens also comments on the importance of management support for research and the future of the foam industry.
Irvin I. Rubin discusses his career in the plastics industry, working in a wide range of positions such as a consultant, Chief Shift Scientist, and Plant Manager at various companies. After working at Robinson Plastics Corporations, Montrose Chemical Company, and Columbia Plastic Products Manufacturing Corporations, Rubin eventually became owner of Robinson Plastics and founded RLR Industries, Inc.. Throughout his career, Rubin has been dedicated to the dissemination of plastics education, and now in retirement, he finds himself working toward the preservation of the rich history of the revolutionary plastics industry.
Audrey Rust discusses her love of Nature and her work with the Peninsula Open Space Trust [POST], and how the organization has developed and expanded since she first began. Rust also accredits POST’s success to the integral involvement of Gordon and Betty Moore and the support of the Moore Foundation. Rust also sees a bold future ahead for POST and details an interesting method for preservation through personal relationships, creative funding, and an ambitious but detailed plan.
Whitson Sadler, who was born in Bristol, Tennessee, discusses his early life in various places due to his father’s work relocations, eventually earning a degree in economics at Sewanee, the University of the South, and then enlisting in the U.S. Navy. After his service, Sadler graduated from the Harvard Business School, and began to work at Lazard Frères & Co. but ultimately left to become vice chairman and CEO of Solvay America. Sadler figured prominently in the Soltex Polymer Corporation board and the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and Solvay America prospered under his leadership before he retired.
Lewis Sarett begins his oral history interview by telling of his early life in Wisconsin and Illinois, the influence of his father, and some of his experience in college and graduate school. He then turns to his first assignment at Merck, the synthesis of cortisone. This is followed by a discussion of the efforts to discover a use for cortisone, the development of an economically viable synthesis of cortisone, and finally, the efforts to supply cortisone for public use. The next section of the interview deals with his movement into managerial positions, and this is followed by a discussion of a number of drugs developed under his direction, including Decadron, Amprol, Thibenzol, Indocin, Dolobid, and Clinoril. Interspersed in the interview are comments on the Merck organization and on the various presidents, research directors, and colleagues with whom he worked. A significant section deals with his accomplishments as President of Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories and as Vice President for Science and Technology.
In this interview John Schaefgen begins with his family history and early life in Gross Point, Illinois. He then discusses the development of his interest in science, and describes his education, including his professors and fellow students at Northwestern University and Ohio State University. In the central portion of the interview, Schaefgen considers his association with Paul Flory at the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and recalls his move to the Pioneering Research Laboratory at Du Pont. He then describes his interests and accomplishments in polymer chemistry. The interview concludes with a discussion of his colleagues, professional society activities, and views on the characteristics of innovative research.
Harold Scheraga starts his oral history interview by recalling his childhood in Monticello, New York and then in Brooklyn, where he attended Brooklyn Boys High School, where he was attracted to Latin and mathematics. Scheraga decided to concentrate on chemistry when he began attending the City College of New York. Scheraga was offered a graduate position at Duke University, where the chemistry department was chaired by Paul Gross, himself a CCNY graduate. Along with his graduate research on the Kerr effect, Scheraga contributed to the wartime projects on the frangible bullet and on gas-phase halogenation. Scheraga consolidated his growing interest in biochemical areas by a postdoctoral year at Harvard. From there, he was appointed as an instructor in the chemistry department at Cornell, where he has spent the rest of his career, including a period (1960-1967) as chairman. During the 1970s, he was also a visiting professor at the Weizmann Institute. Scheraga describes the development of his research activities including the hydrodynamic properties of polymer solutions, which then led to his extensive work on protein structure and function. International collaboration has always been important to Scheraga, and he details his sabbaticals at the Carlsberg laboratory and his later association with the Weizmann Institute.
Warren G. Schlinger begins his oral history interview by tracing his family heritageand discussing his introduction to chemistry: a Gilbert Chemistry Set owned by a friend. While a young man, Schlinger began to attend public lectures at California Institute of Technology [Caltech] where he eventually was accepted and completed his education, earning a doctorate in mechanical and chemical engineering. Schlinger spent the entirety of his career at the research lab in Montebello, California. Schlinger recollects the history of Texaco. He shares aspects of his private life—stories of meeting his wife Katharine, the successes of their three children, and the Warren and Katharine Schlinger Foundation that the Schlinger family established and manages.
Helga Schmid begins her oral history interview by discussing her interest in information sciences. After meeting her husband, she relocated to Belgium and she began training to be a computer programmer. In 1969 she joined the International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA]. While there Schmid helped publish the first INIS [International Nuclear Information System] Atomindex. In 1975, she moved on to AGRIS [International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology]. In 2000, she retired, after rising through the organization to become the head of AGRIS Processing. Schmid concludes the interview by discussing briefly her knowledge of AGRIS in its present state and sharing some of the positive experiences she had throughout her career as a computer analyst.
Herman Schroeder starts his oral history interview by discussing his family background and growing up in Brooklyn. After an early graduation he entered Harvard, Schroeder set his mind on chemistry, in part influenced by his tutor, John Edsall. Staying on at Harvard for graduate study in the physical aspects of organic chemistry, Herman Schroeder investigated the rates and mechanism of large ring closure. Arriving at the Du Pont Experimental Station in 1938, Schroeder outlines his initial assignments and his important wartime research on tire cord adhesives. Transferring to the Jackson Laboratories, he worked on both dyestuff synthesis and the mechanisms of dyeing synthetic fibers, as well as obtaining experience in production control. Moving to greater research responsibilities, Schroeder played an important role in the development of several polymers, which is described towards the end of the first interview. The interview concludes with some of Schroeder's retirement activities and a full account of the Louisville plant explosion.
Claire K. Schultz begins her oral history interview by discussing her childhood in south central Pennsylvania. Inspired by her grandmother's belief in her abilities, Schultz graduated from Juniata College in three years, and went on to medical school after a year of work in the Philadelphia State Hospital. Forced to leave medical school by the birth of her first child, Schultz went on to a job as a research assistant at the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, and then to Merck Sharp & Dohme, where she first became interested in information retrieval . Schultz campaigned to get an IBM 101 system. Schultz wrote her master's thesis at Drexel University in Library Science on the MSD library system. As one of the pioneer documentalists, Schultz worked at Sperry Rand Univac Corporation, and later at the Institute for the Advancement of Medical Communication. Schultz closes her interview with anecdotes about her post-retirement hobbies, and her work as a computer consultant in a local elementary school.
Nadrian C. Seeman grew up in Highland Park, Illinois. He obtained his PhD in crystallography from the University of Pittsburgh; then took a postdoc at Columbia University, working with Cyrus Levinthal, and a second postdoc in Alexander Rich’s lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Rich discovered hybridization, which is the basis of all of Seeman’s DNA nanotechnology work. Seeman began his professional career in the biology department at State University of New York at Albany. When Neville Kallenbach left the University of Pennsylvania to become chairman of the chemistry department at New York University, he recruited Seeman to join the NYU faculty. Seeman was influenced by the Escher print Depth to develop both three-dimensional (cube-like and similar) lattices of DNA, a process requiring branched DNA and sticky ends. As a result he is often referred to as the father of DNA nanotechnology. (He says he is sometimes called the father of single-stranded synthetic DNA topology because he recognized that DNA is the ideal synthetic topological component.) He founded the International Society for Nanoscale Science, Computation, and Engineering (ISNSCE). He feels that other applications of his work include nanoelectronics and a way to look at what happens in living systems on the molecular scale by using DNA crystals to scaffold biomacromolecules to establish their structures and interactions with other species. Seeman shared the 2010 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience from the Norwegian Academy of Sciences with Donald Eigler for their “development of unprecedented methods to control matter on the nanoscale.” Seeman founded the field, but there are now more than a hundred groups worldwide in DNA nanotechnology. Seeman’s current work deals with extending the crystallographic aspects of his DNA constructs, as well as automatic molecular weaving.
Harry Sello begins his oral history interview with a review of his childhood which included emigration from Russia. Sello became interested in chemistry and completed undergraduate work in organic chemistry before applying this knowledge to his Ph.D. research at the University of Missouri. William Shockley recruited him to Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. At Shockley and then at Fairchild Semiconductor, Sello worked on a variety of chemical aspects of semiconductor manufacturing. Sello concentrated on the transfer of silicon transistor technology to Societa Generale Semiconduttore in Italy, negotiating cultural and industrial boundaries. In 1980, he began Harry Sello Associates after Fairchild Semiconductor was sold to Schlumberger Exploration. Sello concludes the interview with reflections on his current role as an expert witness.
Irving Shapiro begins his oral history interview by discussing his parents' backgrounds and the influence of his father's interest in law and accounting. He describes the path which took him from a private practice in Minneapolis, to the U.S. Office of Price Administration during WWII, to the U.S. Department of Justice's Criminal Division, where his highly publicized work prosecuting eleven Communists brought him to the attention of the DuPont legal department. Shapiro recalls how his appointment as a DuPont General Counsel heralded a new era for the company in terms of its attitude toward Jews. In considering his advancement to CEO, Shapiro emphasizes his relationships with Walter Carpenter, Crawford Greenewalt, and Charles McCoy, as well as his work with the industrial departments and in disputes involving General Motors, Ford Motors, and Ralph Nader. Shapiro explains how his management and communication practices impacted on public and internal views of DuPont and allowed talented employees to blossom. Finally, Shapiro describes his post-DuPont work.
Phillip A. Sharp’s oral history interview begins with a discussion of his family, then discusses his childhood in Falmouth, Kentucky. He received his B.A. in chemistry and math from Union College in 1966. Then, Sharp went on to earn his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Illinois. Sharp went to Caltech initially for his post-doctoral studies, but after three years he joined James Watson’s virology lab at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory to learn more about cell biology. In 1974, Sharp accepted an invitation at the newly created Center for Cancer Research at MIT. In 1977, Sharp and Richard J. Roberts discovered split genes, which led to the discovery of RNA splicing for which they shared the Nobel Prize in 1993. Sharp eventually became head of the biology department and director of the Center for Cancer Research. Moreover, Sharp was instrumental in the establishment of one of the first biotech companies, Genentech, Inc and he helped establish Biogen, Inc. Sharp concludes the interview with reflections on the significance of the neuroscience research community that currently surrounds and includes Harvard University.
James N. Shoolery begins his oral history interview by discussing growing up during the Depression and his early interests in chemistry. His education at University of California, Berkeley was interrupted by World War II, during which he served in the U.S. Navy. Shoolery decided to pursue a Ph.D. in chemistry at the California Institute of Technology and worked under Don M. Yost on microwave spectroscopy. Shoolery wrote to Varian Associates, Inc. about the possibility of his coming to work there on applications for nuclear magnetic resonance; he spent nearly forty years working there.
Kenneth F. Siebel begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his undergraduate studies at the University of Wisconsin. Shortly fter earning his MBA Siebel formed his own investment banking firm Robertson, Coleman, and Siebel in 1969. While building it into a highly successful firm, he underwrote many now famous technology companies. The conversation then turns to Siebel’s commitment to conservation and his involvement in Conservation International. It was through Conservation International that Siebel became friends with another board member, Gordon E. Moore. Finally, the interview focuses on the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, from its launch through Siebel’s presentday involvement as a board member.
Howard E. Simmons, Jr. begins his oral history interview describing his family history. Drawn to MIT because of its post-WWII reputation, he studied chemistry and conducted research under Jack D. Roberts. Earning a B.S. in 1951, he continued at MIT with Roberts and Arthur C. Cope, completing a Ph.D.. Simmons became a member of research staff in the Central Research Department [CRD] at DuPont in 1954. His early studies on structure and mechanisms led to the Simmons-Smith reaction, the first general synthesis of cyclopropanes, and a related patent. He closes with a description of his sons' DuPont careers and comments on scientific misconduct.
In this interview, Dr. Sinfelt recalls his childhood during the Depression, his early education, and his interest in mathematics. Sinfelt describes the University of Illinois chemistry department under Roger Adams and his own studies under Harry Drickamer. Moving on to the Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Sinfelt describes how his research on catalytic reaction kinetics meshed with Exxon's increased emphasis on basic research and how this led to his discovery of bimetallic clusters and the success of the platinum-iridium catalyst.
Cedomir Sliepcevich begins his oral history interview with a description of his family and early years in Montana. After transferring to the University of Michigan for chemical engineering, he received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D.. While a graduate student, Sliepcevich studied thermodynamics under George Granger Brown. During World War II, he worked on a National Defense Research Council classified project and worked as a consultant for the U.S. Army V-2 rocket test program. In 1955, he joined the faculty of the University of Oklahoma as Professor and Chairman of Chemical Engineering. Sliepcevich was instrumental in establishing the Flame Dynamics Laboratory. He founded his own firm, University Engineers, Inc., in 1963, which specialized in fire protection systems for liquid natural gas.
Interview is not available on audiocassette.
Emil Smith begins his oral history interview by discussing his undergraduate study of biology at Columbia University. He received a Guggenheim fellowship to Cambridge University until the outbreak of World War II. Smith accepted a position at the University of Utah and later University of California, Los Angeles. Smith describes his research interests: peptidases, immunoglobulins, cytochromes, subtilisin, histones, and glutamate dehydrogenases.
Henry I. Smith begins his oral history interview describing his childhood in New Jersey and his early aptitude in science. After obtaining an undergraduate degree at Holy Cross, Smith earned a master's degree and Ph.D. at Boston College. Smith established a Submicron Structures Laboratory with MIT funding. He concludes the interview by offering some insights on the semiconductor industry, and how to best develop a research culture that stimulates innovation.
Charles P. Smyth begins his oral history interview discussing his undergraduate education at Princeton and his tenure at the National Bureau of Standards and the Chemical Warfare Service during the First World War. Smyth discusses his Ph.D. training at Harvard and his return to Princeton as an instructor. His work on dipole moment lead to an important discovery about benzene ring structure that proved correct the Kekulé model. The interview ends with a discussion of Smyth's work on deuterium and the Manhattan Project. In the appendix, "Scientist in a Jeep," Smyth narrates a detailed account of his work in the U.S., France and Germany with the ALSOS Mission.
Harold Sorgenti begins his oral history interview discussing his family background and childhood in New York City College. He found a job after college at Battelle Memorial Institute, and while working received his masters in chemical engineering from Ohio State University. He joined the Atlantic Richfield Oil Corporation [ARCO], where he was quickly promoted into management. After a long career with ARCO Sorgenti undertook entrepreneurial ventures. Sorgenti ends the interview by reflecting on his philanthropic involvements and family life.
This interview describes Dr. Edgar W. Spanagel's life, focusing on his contributions to nylon research at the DuPont Company. Spanagel grew up in Wisconsin and attended Lawrence College. Spanagel secured a scholarship to McGill University, where he worked under Charles F. H. Allen. Spanagel, completing his Ph.D. in 1933. He accepted a position as a DuPont Research Chemist in Wallace Carothers' polymer group.
Jack B. St. Clair begins his oral history with a description of his childhood in Virginia and Louisiana. After Tulane University, he accepted a position as technical trainee, gas department, at Shell Oil Company's Houston, Texas refinery. Despite the lack of formal training, St. Clair readily accepted increasing responsibilities, recognizing he was being groomed for higher management After briefly serving as Houston refinery superintendent, he reluctantly moved to England as Shell International Petroleum Company, North American Division head and later the New York Head Office general manager and was quickly promoted to Shell Chemical Company president in 1967.
William S. Stavropoulos begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his family, his childhood, and education in Bridgehampton, New York. In 1961, Stavropoulos attended Fordham University, where he received a B.S. in pharmacy. Having received his Ph.D. in medical chemistry from the University of Washington, Stavropoulos was hired at Dow Chemical as a research chemist. In 1980, he became Commercial Vice President of Dow Latin America. In 1995, Mr. Stavropoulos was named CEO of Dow Chemical Company. Mr. Stavropoulos concludes the interview with his thoughts on winning the American Chemical Industry Medal in 2001.
Richard Stein starts his oral history interview by reflecting Brooklyn Technical High School and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. Stein then accepted a Textile Foundation fellowship at Princeton University. Stein was appointed to an assistant professorship in the chemistry department of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the Polymer Research Institute.
Leo H. Sternbach begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his family and childhood in Austria and Poland during the First World War. He enrolled in a Ph.D. program in organic chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute. After beginning work with Hoffmann-La Roche in Basel, increasing pressure to leave Switzerland. Sternbach descrribes the benzodiazepine research.
Walter Stockmayer first became interested in the mathematical aspects of physical chemistry as an undergraduate at MIT and then a Rhodes Scholarship brought him to Oxford, where he undertook gas kinetics research. Stockmayer earned a Ph.D.at MIT. Much of the interview disscusses Stockmayer's polymer research at MIT and later Dartmouth.
Gilbert Stork begins his oral history interview with a description of his childhood and family background in Paris, moving to the United States in 1939, and his studies in chemistry at the University of Florida. While earning his Ph.D. at Wisconsin, synthesis related to quinine and stereochemical control in synthesis highlighted Stork's graduate work and early career. He joined the faculty of Columbia University as an associate professor, where he continued his organic synthesis research.
Carlyle B. Storm begins the interview describing his family background and becoming a professor of chemistry at Howard University. In the early 1980s, he accepted a position at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he researched conventional high explosives as chief scientist. Much of the interview focuses on Storm's involvement with the Gordon Research Conferences and becoming director in 1993.
Andrew Streitwieser begins his oral history interview by describing his family, early education, and education at Columbia University, stressing the influence of William Doering upon his work. Finally, Streitwieser describes the emergence of organic chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and his own ambitious and productive research program there.
Michael Szwarc begins with his early interest in science while growing up in Poland, leading to his studies at the Warsaw Polytechnic Institute. Szwarc next describes his experiences from 1935, when he emigrated to Israel, until his move to the University of Manchester in 1945 where he worked with Michael Polanyi on polymerization. He Subsequently, he held a professorship at SUNY, Syracuse.
Herbert Tabor begins his interview discussing growing up during the Depression in Manhattan, New York,. After spending two years at City College, he transferred to Harvard University, where he graduated with an A.B. in biochemical science in 1937. He earned his M.D. then entered the Public Health Service of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), studying electrolyte changes in burn and shock victims. Tabor also discusses his work on the editorial board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Henry Taube begins his oral history discussing his chemistry career at Cornell University, University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Chicago. Taube also discusses his research on mass spectrometry with Frank H. Westheimer and Willard H. Libby.
The oral history begins with Harold E. Thayer recalling growing up in Rochester, New York, during the Depression, and the decision to attend MIT, where he pursued a course combining chemical engineering and business administration. He describes working at American Cyanamid and Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, where he was involved in the War Production Board and the Manhattan District's uranium processing.The interview focuses on Thayer's long-standing outspokenness in management.
In this oral history interview Max Tishler reminisces about his family, early schooling, undergraduate education at Tufts, graduate and postgraduate work at Harvard, and the state of chemistry in the 1930s. The major portion of the interview contains Tishler's impressions of the research and development undertaken by Merck & Co. in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, and of his role in that activity. Tishler ends the interview by discussing his current activities at Wesleyan and presenting his views about the future direction of chemistry.
Charles Tobias begins his oral history interview with a description of his family in Hungary and education at the University of Technical Sciences in Budapest while comparing the U.S. and Hungarian systems. Tobias explains his wartime experiences in Hungary and the struggle to reach the U.S.. He spends a large portion of the interview discussing the Electrochemical Society.
Jacques Tocatlian was born in Egypt, where he attended a French secondary school and then studied industrial chemistry. After work in the plastics division at Monsanto, Tocatlian accepted a position at the Food and Machinery Corporation as a literature chemist, and worked on the first Selective Dissemination of Information [SDI] experiment. Tocatlian pursued a master’s in information and library science. Throughout the interview, Tocatlian discusses the international standardization issues of UNESCO and the organization of UNISIST.
Claudio Todeschini received his first degree in civil engineering from the University of Capetown, South Africa and later went to the United States and became a Ph.D. research assistant at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Todeschini accepted a professorship at the University of Maryland in 1966, and a year later, he became a part-time researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the U.S. Department of Commerce, working on information systems, retrieval, and terminological relationships. He joined the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Haldor Topsøe begins his oral history discussing of his early life in Denmark, and his involvement in his father’s Samfundshjælpen, which taught him the importance of collaboration between social classes. As a chemical engineer, and later, a businessman, Topsøe gained an interest in the relationship between economics and science, particularly catalysis. Topsøe further discusses the transfer of technology to India and the Third World, and the impact of the Green Revolution on chemical industries.
Howard S. Turner begins his oral history discussing his early interests in chemistry before receiving his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Swarthmore College. Turner earned his Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology [MIT] in 1936 and before starting his career with E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company working in the Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware., where he researched polymer 66, nylon, and Corfam. In 1947, after eleven years with DuPont, Turner left the company and in 1965, Turner left J&L to become president of Turner Construction Company, in New York. The company, started in 1902 by his uncle, was among the top construction firms in the country.
Leslie L. Vadasz begins the oral history interview describing his childhood in Budapest during World War II. He began an undergraduate mechanical engineering program before continuing in solid state physics at McGill University. Vadasz joined Fairchild Semiconductor, where he helped develop the silicon gate process and later at Intel Corporationhe researched erasable programmable read-only memory. Vadasz recounts his role as general manager of the microcomputer components division and its interactions with the semiconductor industry. Vadasz concludes the interview with remarks on the importance of technical knowledge in both developmental and managerial work.
Edwin J. Vandenberg begins his oral history discussing his early interests in science and the decision to focus on chemistry at Stevens Institute of Technology. He began his career at Hercules working on paper chemistry, where he contributed to the understanding of paper sizing as a colloid phenomenon. After working on World War II production of smokeless powder, Vandenberg returned to the Hercules research, working on a wide range of polymer syntheses. The interview concludes with an account of his retirement activities at Arizona State University, and reflections on his family, colleagues and ACS activities.
Inder Verma begins his oral history interview by discussing how he came to leave the Weizmann Institute of Science and join David Baltimore’s laboratory at MIT . Verma discusses his early research on reverse transcriptase and RNA, establishing himself with his co-workers, and his impressions of Baltimore. Verma provides an alternate view to some of the political turmoil that Charles N. Cole discusses in his interview because as a foreign student, Verma had a different opinion of the Vietnam War and the anti-war demonstrations. Verma concludes his interview with some thoughts about his research and its impact on cancer research.
Joint interview with Charles N. Cole.
Ernest Volwiler begins his oral history interview discussing his early years in Ohio, college at Miami University, and his early interests in chemistry. He attended the University of Illinois for his Ph.D., wheer he worked with Roger Adams. His long career with Abbott Laboratories started in organic synthesis, including some plant production responsibilities. After World War II, Volwiler was a member of the pharmaceutics investigating team sent to Germany. Post-war advancement led Volwiler to the presidency of Abbott Laboratories, and he discusses how he trimmed the production line and initiated development into new areas. His ACS activities culminated in his election as Society President in 1950.
Frederick Wall begins his oral history discussing his family background and childhood in Minnesota, attending the University of Minnesota, and studying chemistry and chemical engineering. After a stint at Caltech with Pauling, Wall moved back to the University of Minnesota and earning his Ph.D. in 1935. At the University of Illinois he worked on infrared spectroscopy, gradually becoming interested in polymers. During World War II he volunteered to work on the rubber problem. In 1963, Wall moved to the University of California, Santa Barbara and later the University of California, San Diego. In 1969, he became executive director of the American Chemical Society (ACS), but soon rejoined academia, becoming professor of chemistry at Rice University.
Cheves Walling begins his oral history interview by describing his family and education at Harvard and the University of Chicago, stressing the major review article on the peroxide effect that he and Frank Mayo wrote in 1940. Walling next examines the research that he undertook at DuPont, U.S. Rubber, and Lever Brothers, emphasizing the work that he did before 1950 at U.S. Rubber. Finally, Walling examines his academic career at Columbia and the University of Utah. Throughout the interview he reflects upon the emergence and maturation of physical organic chemistry.
John C. Warner begins his oral history interview discussing his family, his high school interest in science. He enrolled in Indiana University in 1915, where he received his A.B. in chemistry in 1919, his M.A. in 1920, and his Ph.D. in 1923. In 1926, he joined the faculty of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, where he spent the rest of his career, rising to become president of in 1950. Warner concludes the interview with a discussion of his family and reflections on his role in the advanced educational development in Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
Earl L. Warrick begins his oral history interview with a description of his childhood, which involved frequent moves between cities, remembering a seventh grade teacher who inspired his interest in chemical engineering by having him build a onetube radio. While at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Warrick was disappointed by the chemical engineering and switched to physical chemistry, in which he received a master's degree. Warrick describes his experiences at the Mellon Institute, where he developed a glass coating. He received his Sc.D. for a kinetic study carried out almost exclusively on nights and weekends. While at Dow Corning, Warrick helped develop rubber, polymer, and silicone research including the famous "Silly Putty." He mentions the influence of several colleagues, especially McGregor, Collings, Hyde, Bass, and Speier. Warrick concludes by commenting on his position at Saginaw Valley State College, his current writing, and the changes that have occurred in chemistry throughout his career.
James L. Waters begins his oral history interview by discussing his family history and the emigration of his ancestors from England to Massachusetts in 1638. Born in Lincoln, Nebraska in 1925, Waters describes himself as an independent child. During high school, Waters' father was offered a position that took the Waters family to Framingham, Massachusetts. As part of the Navy’s V-12 program, Waters studied at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Columbia University, before being discharged and transferring to the University of Nebraska. Shortly after accepting a position at Baird Associates Inc.,Waters, decided the time was right to start his own instrumentation company. At just twenty-two, Waters founded James L. Waters, Inc., in his parents’ basement. Waters’ sheer determination to succeed enabled him to overcome the many obstacles that occurred while working on his first instrument, an infrared gas analyzer. Waters founded Waters Associates, Inc. in 1958, and shortly afterwards began to delve into the field of gel permeation chromatography [GPC]. Waters Associates merged with Millipore Inc. in 1977.
Paul Weisz begins his oral history interview by discussing his family background in Austria-Hungary after World War I period, when his family moved to Berlin. Weisz was educated in the Gymnasium, where he developed an interest in physics and chemistry. Weisz attended the Technical University in Berlin and spent his free time in the laboratory of Wolfgang Kohlhoerster at the Institute of Cosmic Radiation Research, where he worked on Geiger counter instrumentation and cosmic ray measurements. Because of Hitler’s rise to power, Weisz arranged an exchange program with Auburn University, earning his B.S. in physics in 1940. At the Bartol Research Foundation in Pennsylvania, Weisz worked on radiation counting and projects relating to the National Research Defense Council. After gaining clearance to do classified work, he moved to the MIT Radiation Laboratory where he helped to develop a long range navigation trainer (Loran). He accepted a position with Mobil Corporation, where he worked on catalysis. In 1966, he completed his Sc.D. at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich, where he had worked with Heinrich Zollinger on dye chemistry. Weisz concludes the interview by discussing innovation in industry, the importance of interdisciplinary thinking, and his later work on Alzheimer’s Disease and angiogenesis.
In his oral history interview, Frank Westheimer begins discussing his family, his undergraduate days at Dartmouth, and his choice of Harvard for graduate work. He talks about his research with James Conant, Elmer Kohler, and his early interest in biochemistry in the mid-1930s. Westheimer continues with the offer of a position at the University of Chicago from Morris Kharasch. The interview concludes with more discussion of physical organic chemistry, a review of his work on the hydrolysis of phosphate esters and pseudorotation; comments on the future of organic chemistry; and a review of the Westheimer Report, the analysis of American chemistry by the National Academy of Sciences.
Paul A. Wilks, Jr. begins his oral history interview by discussing his early years and family life in Springfield, Massachusetts. After graduating from Springfield Technical High School, Wilks went to Harvard University, where he majored in engineering. In 1945, he began working at Perkin-Elmer, Inc, becoming marketing director in 1952. In 1957, Wilks left Perkin-Elmer and, with Charles W. Warren, founded the Connecticut Instrument Company, a company that manufactured accessories for the infrared industry. Later Wilks formed the Wilks Scientific Corporation, which manufactured a variety of spectroscopy products. Wilks founded the General Analysis Corporation. Wilks retired in 1993 and General Analysis was eventually sold to OI Corporation. Although theoretically retired, Wilks started another company in the 1990s, Wilks Enterprise, Inc. This company continues Wilks’ efforts to produce applicable products based on infrared spectroscopy and other technologies. Wilks concludes the interview with reflections on the state of infrared technology and thoughts about his career.
R. Stanley Williams begins his oral history interview by discussing Sputnik’s influence on his decision to study science. After a positive experience in high school, Williams found himself not as prepared in comparison to his peers at Rice University, where he was mentored in microwave spectroscopy by Professor Robert Curl. After obtaining his undergraduate degree, Williams worked at Hewlett-Packard on photoelectron spectrometers. Williams worked on photoemission while pursing his graduate degree at the University of California, Berkeley. After receiving his Ph.D., Williams accepted a position at Bell Laboratories as staff scientist. Disliking the corporate culture at Bell, Williams moved to University of California, Los Angeles and very quickly built up a large research lab, which studied photoemission, ion scattering, STM, and finally AFM. After the earthquake in 1994 destroyed most of his instruments, Williams returned to HP and started a research initiative that eventually evolved into the Quantum Science Research Laboratory [QSR]: nano electronics; nano photonics; nano mechanics; and nano architecture. Williams concludes the interview by offering his thoughts on outside collaboration and funding, the importance of micro-electro-mechanical systems [MEMS] to HP, and how he views QSR in relations to other research institutions.
Alison E. M. Adams attended Trinity College, Dublin, where she studied genetics and spent a semester in John Pringle’s lab at the University of Michigan. Next, she returned to the United States and to Pringle’s lab, researching Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After finishing her PhD she ended up at David Botstein’s lab at Massachusetts Institutes of Technology, then went with him to Genentech, where she discovered that fimbrim isoforms can compensate for Sac 6. This work inspired her research at the University of Arizona, where she established her own lab and shifted toward biochemistry. Adams plans to take a sabbatical to pursue research for the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and teach in India. She discusses her role in science, scientific cooperation, and perspective on the future of mankind.
John D. Altman was born and raised in Birmingham, Michigan. He had planned to attend medical school after obtaining an electrical engineering degree, but soon after beginning college he switched majors to chemistry, working in Michael Marletta’s toxicology laboratory. During his junior year he realized that he wanted to go into research, and decided to attend University of California, San Francisco for graduate school. His doctoral research in Irwin Kuntz’s biophysical chemistry laboratory involved using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study protein structure. After postdocs at Stanford and Oxford University, Altman accepted a position at the Vaccine Center of Emory University. He talks about his administrative roles collaborations, funding, and his research on vaccines at the Southeastern Regional Center for Excellence in Biodefense.
James C. A. Bardwell was born in Saskatoon, Canada and attended University of Saskatchewan. He worked with Louis P. Visentin at the Canadian National Research Council, where he focused his work on recombinant DNA. Bardwell’s interest in the outdoors led him to take trips between undergraduate and graduate school to Papua, New Guinea and the Northwest Territories. He continued to travel throughout his graduate career. While at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Bardwell worked in Elizabeth Craig’s laboratory on heat-shock proteins. His postdoctoral work included research in genetics on protein disulfide isomerase. Now at University of Michigan, he has continued his research on protein folding. Bardwell reflects on scientific policy, public awareness, scientific funding, and how these broader themes have influenced his work.
Michael J. Berry II was influenced by the chemistry careers of both his parents, and during his youth developed twin interests in physics and philosophy. After earning a bachelor’s degree, Berry chose to pursue a PhD in physics at Harvard University under Robert M. Westervelt. In a Marine Biological Laboratory course at Woods Hole, Berry focused on electrophysiology and found a community of physicists working in neuroscience and the biological fields. His post-doctoral research with Markus Meister at Harvard University allowed him to transition successfully into the field of neuroscience. Throughout his oral history, Berry addresses such important issues as funding, mentoring his students, and attempting to balance his personal life with his career.
David A. Brenner grew up in Queens, New York, and evinced an early interest in the sciences. As an undergraduate at Yale University he worked in Joseph Bloomer’s lab, where he continued his research after earning his bachelor’s degree in biology and entering Yale Medical School. His subsequent work has focused on ferrochelatase and fibrosis in cirrhosis. In his 1990 interview, Brenner discusses tenure; his lab management style; competition and collaboration; and his winning of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences award. Brenner starts the 2009 interview by reviewing his early years in college and affirming his career decisions. He appreciates the insights his clinical experience gives him in his research, and he talks about the Pew award and the Pew annual meetings.
Patrick Brennwald grew up in the suburbs of Chicago. He remembers taking many good science classes in high school, and doing a special project on the sex determination mechanism of swordtail fish. Brennwald attended Carleton College, where he began in biology, but switched to chemistry. He loved the bench and realized he wanted to be a scientist. Brennwald entered the University of Illinois, working in Jo Ann Wise’s lab. Researching Schizosaccharomyces pombe he cloned four small RNA’s and had two first-author papers. After a four year postdoc with Peter Novick at Yale University, he accepted an assistant professorship at Weill Medical College of Cornell University, where he works on the gene family Rho.
Chavela M. Carr grew up near Indianapolis, Indiana in a large family. She attended Vanderbilt University, studying German, earning Phi Beta Kappa, and remaining involved in choir and musical theatre. Carr worked with Douglas R. Cavener on Drosophila genetics, a research laboratory experience that differed in distinct ways from her general science laboratory courses. She attended MIT for graduate work in biology and soon joined the laboratory of Peter S. Kim (Pew Scholar Class of 1990), working on protein-protein interactions and coiled coils. In 1993 Carr published a Cell paper on the spring-loaded mechanism of conformational change in flu-virus—a paper which merited news releases in the New York Times and Washington Post. After completing her Ph.D., Carr moved to New Haven, Connecticut, to join Peter J. Novick’s laboratory at Yale University. Upon receiving a position at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Carr began her research group and soon received the Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Science Award
Edwin R. Chapman grew up in Bellingham, Washington, the youngest of four children. From an early age Chapman was interested in science, especially chemistry. After graduating from the Bellingham public schools, he applied to his hometown college, Western Washington University. He discovered there the joys of academics in an organic chemistry class taught by Donald Pavia, whom he considers the best lecturer he has ever encountered; he credits Dr. Pavia, and other lecturers from this period, for setting the stage for graduate studies. After obtaining his bachelors degree, Chapman spent two years as a lab technician, designing HIV assays at Genetic Systems in Seattle. After this experience, he then went to graduate school. Fascinated by the workings of the brain, he decided to work with Dan Storm in the department of pharmacology. Wanting to continue his neuroscience studies, he accepted a Howard Hughes Medical Institute award for a postdoctoral fellowship at Yale in the lab of Reinhard Jahn. After four years Chapman accepted a position at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where he is now a full professor. He discusses his funding history and explains how he set up and manages his lab. He goes on to talk about funding in general; writing grants; peer review system; his professional duties; his current research on synaptic transmission, membrane fusion, and neurotoxins; tenure; teaching and travel commitments; educating people in science.
Arul M. Chinnaiyan was born near Cleveland, Ohio, but spent his first years in a suburb of Chicago, Illinois, the elder of two sons whose parents came from India. Chinnaiyan decided to attend the University of Michigan, working in Stephen Weiss’s lab during summers and part time during the school year on proteases in neutrophils. He entered the Medical Scientist Training Program at University of Michigan to obtain an MD/PhD and eventually joined Vishva Dixit’s lab to study apoptosis. From his research came the discovery of FADD, as well as twenty-one publications. After three years of research, Peter Ward persuaded him to complete his residency in clinical pathology at the University of Michigan. He established his lab and became interested in studying biomarkers for prostate cancer. He started a DNA microarray facility too. Chinnaiyan remained at Michigan as an assistant professor in pathology and urology and established the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology.
Kathleen L. Collins grew up in Norwell, Massachusetts, and developed an early love for chemistry. Attending Wellesley College, Collins worked in Andrew C. Webb’s molecular biology laboratory for her honor’s thesis. She also worked on cloning interleukin-1 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Collins was accepted into the Medical Scientist Training Program at Johns Hopkins University, where she earned a joint MD/PhD degree. She did doctoral research on DNA synthesis in Thomas Kelly’s molecular genetics laboratory, mentored by Mark Wold. Collins completed a postdoc at MIT in David Baltimore’s lab, then accepted a position at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She discusses the impact of receiving the Pew award; gender issues in science; administrative duties; writing grants; advice to would-be scientists; publishing; teaching duties; and clinical responsibilities.
Charles E. Connor was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He grew up with relatives who had a science background and knew he wanted to be a scientist from a young age. He attended Loyola College in Maryland for undergrad and Vanderbilt University for his master’s degree in pharmacology. After a stint in law school, he entered the neuroscience program at Johns Hopkins University, where he studied neural signaling for texture. He stayed at Hopkins for a postdoc with Gian F. Poggi and Michael Steinmetz, then took another postdoc at Washington University in St. Louis with David C. Van Essen. Connor returned to Hopkins for a faculty position in the neuroscience department, where his research has focused on understanding the neural code for object shape in the brain.
Richard I. Dorsky grew up in Palo Alto, California. His father was a chemist who nurtured Dorsky’s early interest in science with simple experiments at home and trips to the chemistry lab. An outstanding biology teacher in high school turned Dorsky’s interest in chemistry to a love of biology. Dorsky majored in molecular biology at the University of California, Berkeley. He worked in Mark Davis’s lab at Stanford University, then entered Corey Goodman’s lab, where he wrote his honors thesis with Alex Kolodkin. At University of California, San Diego, for his PhD work, Dorsky began working on notch function gene in the retina. He became interested Wnt signaling and zebrafish. At the University of Washington for his postdoc, he worked in two labs: David Raible’s and Randall Moon’s. He left Washington for an assistant professorship at the University of Utah.
Patricia F. Ducy grew up in Lyon, France, an only child. When she was about twelve she had a biology teacher who inspired her to go into genetics She studied pharmacy and then general biology before she was accepted into Université Claude Bernard’s PhD program in genetics. She worked in Robert Garrone’s histology lab, where she conducted research on actin in fresh-water sponges. She expected to stay in France and do research, but when she heard Gerard Karsenty give a talk she knew she had found what she wanted to do. She accepted a postdoc in Karsenty’s lab at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center at the University of Texas. A paper she published on osteoblastic-specific transcription factor has been crucial to the field. She accepted a research associate position, then an assistant professorship, at the Baylor College of Medicine. Ducy and Karsenty divided their research, Ducy taking her work on osteoblasts, seeking a connection between fat and bone; they continued to collaborate, and eventually married. Then they moved to Columbia University, where they joined their labs and some of their research.
Brian D. Dynlacht grew up in Coral Gables, Florida. He admired his father, a Holocaust survivor, and his mother, who raised her children while Dylnlacht’s father traveled for work. An experience in an organic chemistry lab as a high schooler kindled his enthusiasm for science. Dynlacht attended Yale for undergrad and University of California, Berkeley for his Ph.D. He researched gene regulation and cell-growth regulatory networks in a postdoctoral position at Massachusetts General Hospital. He took a position at Harvard, but after several years realized that New York was a better fit and moved to the NYU Cancer Institute. While his benchwork has decreased, overseeing his laboratory, writing, reviewing, travelling, and teaching, have come to occupy a significant part of his time as a principal investigator.
Douglas J. Epstein was born in Newfoundland, Canada. Though he found school uninspiring, he liked his high school science classes and spent his CÉGEP (Collège d’enseignement général et professionnel) year fascinated by tapeworms and the logic of their design. While at Concordia University, and later McGill, he discovered genetics. After spending several summers as an orderly at the Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, where his mother worked, he decided to pursue a PhD. During his graduate school career Epstein published eight papers, five as first author. Eventually he became an assistant professor of genetics at the University of Pennsylvania, where his research continues to find new ways in which hedgehog is crucial to neurogenesis; he believes that this work will provide a clearer understanding of diseases caused by alteration in gene function and expression.
Michael A. Farrar was born in Washington, D.C. He attended University of Wisconsin, intending to major in physics and mathematics, but found biology better taught and more interesting; during the summers he worked in a chicken lab trying to manipulate genes. During his last semester he was diagnosed with Addison’s disease. At Washington University in St. Louis he worked on interferon receptors in Robert Schreiber’s lab; he won the Olin Medical Scientist Foundation Fellowship. He then took a postdoc with Roger Perlmutter, later following him to Merck and Company. There Farrar was able to design his own lab, to interview and recommend for hire the lab staff and technicians, and to buy whatever equipment he wanted. He now works at the University of Minnesota.
Mark D. Fleming begins the interview discussing his childhood, which was dominated by his father’s job at IBM. Following graduation from Princeton, Fleming received a Marshall Scholarship, which allowed him to pursue D.Phil. work with Sir Jack E. Baldwin at the University of Oxford; Fleming described the differences between scientific research in Europe and the United States in some detail. Next, Fleming undertook medical training at the Harvard Medical School’s Health, Sciences, and Technology Program. He developed into a clinically-oriented research pathologist, and eventually became a principal investigator at Children's Hospital. Fleming discussed issues related to funding and laboratory management, mentoring students, increasing the racial diversity of students and of faculty in the sciences, scientific literacy, and collaborations.
K. Christopher Garcia grew up in Falls Church, Virginia, the youngest of three children. In high school, he was a tennis player but took an interest in science. After his first year at Tulane University, he took up rugby. In his sophomore year, he broke his neck while playing rugby, and his recovery from these injuries played a major role in Garcia rechanneling his academic efforts into scientific research. Garcia spent a year in Katherine Kennedy’s pharmacology lab at George Washington University, where he worked on hypoxia in tumor cells. He went from there to Johns Hopkins University to work on lymphocyte adhesion receptors. He considers James Hildreth, who was a postdoc there at the time, to have been a very influential mentor in steering his interests into protein biochemistry. Garcia switched departments to biophysics and entered L. Mario Amzel’s lab to focus on the structures of antibodies. As part of his thesis, he spent some months in Stephen Desiderio’s lab to clone and sequence antibodies. These experiences, together with reading a paper from Mark Davis at Stanford on the cloning of the T cell receptor, led Garcia to take on the challenge of determining the TCR structure and how it sees its ligands. Garcia took his interest in receptors to a postdoc at Genentech, where he worked with David Goeddel, Tony Kossiakoff, and Jim Wells to learn aspects of recombinant protein expression and protein engineering. After two years he accepted another postdoc at Scripps Research Institute, working in Ian Wilson’s lab. During his stay at Scripps he and his colleagues published a landmark paper on the first TCR and TCR/MHC structure in Science. Shortly following that work, he accepted an assistant professorship at Stanford University.
Jonathan D. Goldberg was born in Hertfordshire, England. An influential teacher and lessons on DNA led Goldberg to pursue biology at University of Liverpool, where he studied biochemistry and had his first experience with intensive lab work. He subsequently attended Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine and received his Ph.D. under David M. Blow; his graduate research focused on protein structure and x-ray crystallography. Drawn by John Kuriyan’s more experimental approach in structural biology, Goldberg joined Kuriyan’s lab at Rockefeller University for a postdoc, researching the structural biology of cell signaling. James Rothman convinced him to take a position at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center at which he took a hands-on approach to his small lab, and where his research has focused on intracellular transport.
Robert P. Goldstein (Bob Goldstein) grew up in Massapequa, New York, the second of three boys. He attended public schools until high school, when he went to a Roman Catholic school. He did well in his classes, had not yet displayed a special interest in science. Goldstein enrolled in Union College. When he decided that he wanted to study embryology, Ray Rappaport recommended Gary Freeman’s lab at the University of Texas for graduate school. Goldstein’s first two years in Texas produced nothing substantive, and he switched from ascidian and snail embryos to C. elegans and began to see results. He chose to postdoc in John White’s lab at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Medical Research Council in Cambridge, England. No sooner had Goldstein arrived than White left for Wisconsin, but he left behind marvelous equipment, including the original confocal microscope. Goldstein also shared a 4D microscope with Steven Hird, who had independently developed a similar project on axis specification in C. elegans. His love of scientific discovery and enjoyment of his postdoc years led Goldstein to another postdoc at the University of California, Berkeley, in David Weisblat’s lab.
James A. Goodrich grew up in Honesdale, Pennsylvania, the oldest of five children. His sophomore chemistry teacher inspired Goodrich’s love of chemistry and established his firm desire to be a scientist. Not realizing what other options science majors had, Goodrich decided to become a doctor. As a result he applied only to the University of Scranton, a Jesuit university nearby that had a very good reputation for placing its graduates in medical schools. He majored in biochemistry. He did his doctoral work in Carnegie Mellon’s biology department. There he worked on transcription in William McClure’s lab. Next Goodrich accepted a postdoc in Robert Tjian’s molecular genetics laboratory at University of California, Berkeley; there his research focused on human transcription. Goodrich accepted a position at University of Colorado, Boulder. He discusses setting up his lab and its makeup; the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences grant on his work; and his teaching responsibilities. He talks about his current research studying the molecular mechanisms of mammalian transcription; about the University of Colorado, Boulder’s facilities; about competition and collaboration in science; tenure; and his administrative duties.
Mark W. Grinstaff was born in Texas, the elder of two sons. He attended Occidental College. As a sophomore working in Franklin DeHaan’s kinetic chemistry laboratory he fell in love with lab research. Grinstaff chose graduate school at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign because they had a strong inorganic chemistry department and because it was not California. There he worked in Kenneth S. Suslick’s laboratory; his doctoral project used sound waves to make amorphous iron and protein-microsphere compounds. For his postdoc, Grinstaff conducted research on electron transfer and catalysis in Harry Gray’s laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. Grinstaff accepted a position at Duke University and foraged for equipment to set up his lab; he prefers to spend his money on people. He describes his research making diagnostic devices based on DNA electron transfer, designing single molecular-weight polymers, and polymers for ophthalmic wound repair. He continues with more clinical applications of his research; the issue of patents; commercialization of his research (he has founded two companies); his current research projects in biomaterials chemistry and nanotechnology; and the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences on his work.
Bruce A. Hamilton was born in Palo Alto, California and grew up in Santa Clarita. In high school he had two excellent biology teachers and an excellent chemistry and calculus teacher; their influence further encouraged his love of science. Hamilton matriculated at University of California at San Diego, where as a sophomore he discovered an interest in genetics. He did so well in his first genetics class that he was asked to be a teaching assistant the next year. He spent his senior year in Richard Firtel’s lab. With the guidance of Richard Firtel and the two teachers of that first genetics class, he ended up at California Institute of Technology for graduate school. There he began working with flies in Elliot Meyerowitz’s lab, eventually leaving for Kai Zinn’s lab, where he would concentrate more on neural development. He finished his PhD, married, and moved to Boston, where Hamilton took up his postdoc at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research at Massachusetts of Technology; he worked in Eric Lander’s lab for five years. From there he moved back to San Diego and accepted a position at the University of California at San Diego.
Dorit Hanein was born in Tel Aviv, Israel, but grew up in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. After high school and a stint in the Israeli Army, Hanein enrolled in Shenkar Institute of Textile Technology; there she worked with Dr. Shalev on developing a fire-retardant textile. After receiving her degree, she spent a year in the chemical industry, which she found male-dominated and stodgy. Hanein then followed Shalev’s suggestion that she pursue a graduate degree at the Weizmann. She was accepted and worked on biomineralization and on the specificity of crystal-cell interactions. Hanein decided to spend her first postdoctoral year in Boston with Tom Rapoport (Harvard Medical School) and Chris Akey (Boston University); Hanein had both Fulbright and Rothschild Fellowships at this time. At the end of this year, she went to Brandeis University, to work with David DeRosier, one of the founders of three-dimensional, high resolution electron microscopy image analysis. During that time she learned and practiced biochemistry with Paul Matsudaira at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Following her postrgraduate work, Hanein accepted a position at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute.
Gregory J. Hannon was raised in New Castle, Pennsylvania. He attended Case Western Reserve University. During his sophomore year he worked in Joyce E. Jenhoft’s laboratory, which served as a pivotal moment in his scientific career. Upon starting his graduate career at Case Western, he entered Timothy N. Nilsen’s lab and began his work on RNA processing, developing new techniques to answer his research questions. While working as a postdoctoral fellow with David Beach at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, he researched cell cycle interacting proteins and RNA interference (RNAi). He next accepted a permanent research position at Cold Spring Harbor. Hannon talks about partnerships between academics and industry professionals, the complexities of starting his own lab, privatization of scientific research, trademark issues, and more.
Xi He was born in Wuhan, China. His father was a professor targeted during the Cultural Revolution. While He’s early schooling was “backward,” he felt much respect for his teachers. After Mao’s death, he attended Huazhong University of Science and Technology. His interest in biology led him to pursue a master’s in biomedical engineering, during which time he met Dr. Sidney Sullivan. He attended University of California, San Diego for his Ph.D., transitioning a different national and academic culture. He worked in Michael G. Rosenfeld’s laboratory, researching transcription factors in regulation of brain development. After a postoc at the National Institute of Health, he became a principal investigator at Harvard University, where he researches Wnt cell signaling pathway in gene expression, regulation, and development.
Rebecca W. Heald grew up in Greenville, Pennsylvania. Her father was a chemistry professor at Thiel College in Greenville, and her mother was a chemistry instructor there as well. Heald attended Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, where she majored in chemistry. The department was too small to provide lab work until her last year, when she did her first research project in Donna Brown’s biochemistry lab. For two years she worked as a research associate for Sarah Hitchcock-DeGregori, helping her set up her lab in New Jersey, doing some real analysis, and publishing some papers. During her time in Brown’s lab, Heald heard Bernardo Nadal-Ginard give a talk that influenced her to apply to Harvard University for graduate school. There she worked with Frank McKeon. She did her postdoctoral fellowship with Eric Karsenti at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, where her research focused on spindle formation. She accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley, and set up her lab. Heald concludes the interview by discussing current and planned research on chromosome architecture and mitotic spindle assembly; practical applications of her work; and the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences award on her work.
Ann B. Hill was raised in Sydney, Australia. She studied medicine at the University of New South Wales and interned at Sydney Hospital with a specialization in internal medicine. She continued to train in clinical immunology at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney, where she also set up an immunology clinic for AIDS patients. Wanting to combine clinical medicine and scientific research, Hill returned to the Australian National University for her doctoral degree, working in Arno Mullbacher’s laboratory on immunodominance and cytotoxic T-cell response to flaviviruses. After winning the Oxford Nuffield Dominions Medical Fellowship she attended Oxford University, researching HLA-B51, cross-presentation, and immuno-evasion. A postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology proved quite influential scientifically and Hill continues work on immune-evasion at Oregon Health Sciences University.
Gökhan S. Hotamisligil was born in the town of Pazar, on the Northern cost of Turkey. Growing up in small towns, he learned much from his family intellectually, socially, and culturally in his early years. He then attended a public boarding school where curriculum was intense but his science classes did not offer much experimentation experience. After college he attended Ankara University for his medical degree, after which he served in Eastern Turkey as a public physician where his view of society and medicine begun to transform. Subsequently, he returned to Ankara University where he specialized in pediatrics and became interested in human genetics. His wife’s scholarship to the Shriver Center for Mental Retardation gave him the opportunity to continue his medical training and work in Xandra O. Breakefield’s laboratory at Harvard Medical School. During these years, he was fascinated by basic science and metabolism decided to undertake graduate research at Harvard on adipocyte metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance which shaped his future career. He set up his own lab at Harvard School of Public Health and built a program to explore the interactions between metabolism and immunity and how these interactions contribute to chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. He discusses his early life story, the national scientific agenda, science and public policy, and his own current research.
Gail P. Jarvik was raised in Mount Prospect, Illinois. She had an early interest in nature, reading, and math, and several influential teachers. She matriculated at the University of Iowa, majoring in zoology. She began her medical training at Iowa, but James Hanson, the head of pediatric genetics, encouraged her to pursue her PhD at University of Michigan. There, Jarvik worked on fetal hydantoin syndrome. Next, she went to University of Pennsylvania where she collaborated with Terri Beaty from Johns Hopkins University on hyperlipidemia. She then took a postdoc at University of Washington, under Ellen M. Wijsman, and went on to accept a position at the University of Washington Medical Center. She discusses public awareness of genetic research, ethical questions, advantages of competition, and more.
Stephen L. Johnson was raised in Nashville, Tennessee. While studying writing at Vanderbilt University, he worked in Lee Limbird’s pharmacology lab, though he was still unsure if science suited him. Ultimately he decided to pursue science and joined the genetics department at University of Washington, where he worked under Breck Byers on fusing Cdc4 and LAC-Z genes in yeast. He was also mentored by Leland H. Hartwell. Upon finishing graduate studies, Johnson worked on zebrafish with James A. Weston and Charles A. Kimmel at University of Oregon, researching tissue regeneration mutants, pigment patterns, isometric growth, and genetic mapping. He also developed inbred strains and centromere markers for mapping the zebrafish genome. Johnson then accepted a position at Washington University School of Medicine to continue his work.
Dean H. Kedes’ oral history begins with a discussion of his childhood and family life. Heavily influenced by his father, also a biomedical scientist, Kedes developed an interest in science early in life. He chose to attend Stanford University, pursuing a major in biology with the intention of applying to medical school. Coursework and research in the neurobiology laboratory of Eric Shooter, however, increased his interest in pursuing basic science. Kedes decided to undertake a joint MD/PhD program at Yale University. He joined the laboratory of Joan A. Steitz to study pre-mRNA splicing. Upon earning his MD/PhD, Kedes returned to Stanford University to undertake his clinical residency, though he experienced difficulty transitioning between laboratory research and clinical medicine. Kedes built upon his laboratory research with post-doctoral studies in Donald Ganem’s laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco. There he developed his interests in the molecular biology of infectious diseases including Hepatitis B and Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV). He then accepted a position at the University of Virginia. During the interview Kedes reflects on the importance of balancing family life with laboratory work; creating a positive atmosphere within the laboratory; the importance of the Pew Biomedical Scholars Award award with respect to scientific funding and collaboration; and funding in the United States more broadly.
Douglas R. Kellogg grew up in St. Paul, Minnesota, the second oldest of four children. He had an early interest in reading, and took classes with several influential teachers. Kellogg first chose the University of Minnesota for his undergraduate studies, but after a summer job in Alaska, he transferred to University of Wisconsin, Madison. He always had an interest in and affinity for biology; between undergraduate and graduate school, Kellogg worked as a lab technician on Drosophila genetics, influencing the path of his future research interests and studies. There was no doubt in his mind that he would become a biologist. Kellogg chose to attend the University of California, San Francisco to pursue his graduate degree, working in Bruce M. Alberts’s laboratory studying pattern formation in Drosophila embryo cytoskeleton. After completing his doctoral degree, he decided to stay in San Francisco for a postdoctoral position with Andrew W. Murray and researched the role of mitotic cyclin in coordination of cell growth and cell division. After his postdoc, Kellogg took a position at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where his research has focused on cell-signaling biochemistry in the coordination, division, and regulation of cell growth. In the interview, he spoke at length about the makeup of his lab and how he manages and teaches in the lab. Kellogg also reflects upon the role of technology, critical inquiry, competition, collaborationand creativity in his research and in his science in general. The interview concludes with a discussion of the role of the scientist in educating the public about science, and how this factors in to setting his own and the national scientific agenda; he also offers advice for beginning scientists, and reflects on his favorite scientific papers.
Maurice J. Kernan was born in Dublin, Ireland. He loved natured and enjoyed bird watching on nearby Bull Island. He attended Trinity College, where he developed an interest in genetics and conducted summer research at the Boyce Thompson Institute at Cornell University. Kernan’s project focused on nitrogen fixation done Rhizobium in the root nodules of legume plants, specifically trying to isolate the rec-A gene from that bacterium by complementation—testing transformed, rec-A deficient E. coli with bits of Rhizobium DNA. Kernan moved to the United States for graduate school at University of Wisconsin-Madison, joining Barry Ganetzky’s Drosophila laboratory; his doctoral research led to a pair of Cell papers. After a postdoc, he accepted a faculty position at SUNY Stony Brook, where he is today.
Daniel S. Kessler was raised in Binghamton, New York and attended Cornell University for his undergraduate degree. Not until he worked in Stanley A. Zahler’s bacterial genetics laboratory did he decide to become a scientist. He went on to Rockefeller University for graduate studies, where he worked with James Darnell on interferon signaling proteins (the STATs) identifying the activation of STATs in response to interferons, the STAT complex, and its regulation. Kessler then pursued postdoctoral research in developmental biology with Douglas A. Melton at Harvard University. Finally, he accepted a faculty position at University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, where he works on control of mesoderm and endoderm germ layer formation, behavior of nodal signals during different stages of embryogenesis, and formation of the Spemann organizer.
Seung K. Kim was born in Seoul, South Korea, the oldest of three boys. The family immigrated to the United States when Kim was about three. He attended Harvard University, where he found inspiration in a biochemistry class taught by Mark Ptashne, Tom Maniatis, and Douglas Melton. Kim talks about his college laboratory experience with Richard Goldstein; the process of writing; and his tutelage under James Rheinwald at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. After graduation, Kim enrolled in the MD/PhD program at Stanford University, and worked in Dale Kaiser’s biochemistry laboratory studying cell signaling during development. He discusses his experiences in the MD/PhD program at Stanford; his interest in oncology; and his residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Kim accepted a fellowship at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, then did a postdoc on pancreas development in Douglas Melton’s lab. He then took a position at Stanford University in developmental biology and set up his lab. Kim concludes his interview with lessons he has learned; his reasons for becoming a principal investigator; and the qualities of a good scientist.
Caroline F. Kisker grew up in West Berlin, West Germany, where she attended the John F. Kennedy German-American grammar school. After completing her Abitur, Kisker planned to study medicine, but due to the university placement lottery system she was not able to matriculate. In the interim, while working as a medical apprentice, she decided to pursue biochemistry at the Freie Universität in Berlin. She joined the large laboratory of Wolfram Saenger and had the opportunity to conduct laboratory work in Zurich, Switzerland and Frankfurt, Germany with Nobel Laureate Hartmut Michel. Her doctoral research centered on the determination of medically relevant tetracycline repressor protein, the results of which she published in Science. After completing their doctorates, Kisker and her husband pursued postdoctoral research in Douglas C. Rees’s laboratory at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). At Caltech, Kisker solved the sulfite oxidase structure and published it in Cell. Kisker then accepted a position as a faculty member at State University of New York, Stony Brook. In 2000 Kisker received the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences award and in 2006 she moved to the Rudolf Virchow Center at the University of Würzburg in Germany. She continues her research on structure-based drug design and DNA repair through the tools of structural biology. Kisker discusses the ways in which structural biology has changed throughout her career in response to new technologies and the ways in which funding affects her research and research choices.
Michael R. Koelle was raised in Seattle, Washington. His first laboratory experiences were during high school when he worked in the labs of Barbara L. and Stephen M. Schwartz at University of Washington. He attended University of Washington, then pursued his doctoral degree at Stanford University with David Hogness, working on hormonal controlled development and the ecdysone hormone receptor. Next, he undertook post-doctoral research on the genes involved in neural function and on the mechanics of neurotransmission with H. Robert Horvitz at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He then accepted a position at Yale University, focusing his research on G protein signaling and regulation. His discusses the varied duties of an academic scientist, views on public understandings of science, his current research, and more.
Makoto Kuro-O grew up in Tokyo, the younger of two children. At an early age Kuro-O decided he liked science. He attended the local elementary and junior high schools, and after graduating high school, contemplated becoming a doctor. He entered medical school at University of Tokyo. Kuro-O became interested in cardiology and describes his first basic laboratory experience. He did his PhD while spending at least half of his time seeing patients. He met Ryozo Nagai and joined his lab at Tokyo University. Kuro-O then accepted a position at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. He talks about his move to the United States; setting up his laboratory; funding in general and specifically the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences on his work; his lab management style; his teaching responsibilities; and his research on the age-suppressor gene. The interview concludes with Kuro-O’s comments on collaborations in science, serendipity in his work, gender and ethnic issues in science, his first impressions of the United States, and a comparison of science in Japan and the United States.
Kuo-Fen Lee was raised in Kaohsing, Taiwan and attended National Taiwan University, where he became interested in molecular biology after a virology course. He received his master’s degree from National Yang-Ming Medical College, and then pursued his doctorate at Baylor College of Medicine. He researched gene regulation using transgenic technology and steroid hormone peptides in Jeffrey M. Rosen’s lab. During a postdoc at Whitehead Institute for Biological Research, he worked on crafting a genetic knockout mouse to study neural crest cell migration during development and published in Cell, Science, and Nature. After meeting Story C. Landis and Wylie Vale and attending a Gordon Research Conference on hormone action, Lee accepted a position at Salk Institute for Biological Studies, researching neurobiological development, synapse function, and glial cell function.
Gustavo Leone was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, and lived there until he was twelve when his family moved to Montréal, then to Calgary, seeking better opportunities. Leone entered the University of Calgary, where he did not do well his first year. He left school for a year and a half; upon his return, hw worked hard and did well, intending to become a doctor. After his third year he spent the summer working in Patrick Lee’s lab. He loved that work so much he knew he was made for research. He remained in Lee’s lab for his PhD, where he worked on reovirus and began work on cell cycles. Lee advised Leone to go to Duke University to work with Joseph Nevins. There he studied cell cycle with James DeGregori, who had lived in Uruguay for a year. The two hit it off and published an important paper before DeGregori left Duke. From Nevins, Leone says he learned mentoring and lab management as well as a great deal of science. Leone accepted an offer from Ohio State University. Changing technology brought the opportunity to study interrelationships among the E2F family members, which is where Leone sought a cure for some cancers, notably breast cancer. Seeing cancer as a complex disease needing collaboration and communication among people with differing approaches and goals, Leone established Tumor Microenvironment. He is also one of the heads of the OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center. He continues to find the study of chemistry and genetics of cancer tissue important and fascinating.
Fenyong Liu was born in Guangzhou, China. Early on he knew he wanted to pursue science. He attended the prestigious University of Science and Technology of China. Encouraged by his professors, Liu attended graduate school in the United States at University of Chicago. While his initial research focused on the biochemistry of viral DNA replication, Liu focused in the last years of his doctoral study on the genetics of the herpes virus capsid protein, which resulted in a patent and created intense interest from the pharmaceutical industry. He followed up his graduate research with postdoctoral positions at Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute and Yale University, where he worked with Sidney Altman on the inhibition of antiviral gene expression. His current research has focused on cytomegalovirus infection.
Roy M. Long grew up in Lebanon, a small town near Hershey, Pennsylvania. Teachers told his parents he was good in science and math, so his parents pushed him toward medicine. Long attended Pennsylvania State University, majoring in molecular and cell biology. He made his decision to pursue scientific research rather than medicine when he took a gene expression class; then, wanting to gain lab experience to see if indeed research would be a good career for him, he worked in Ross Hardison’s laboratory. He entered Milton S. Hershey Medical School of Pennsylvania State University for graduate study in biochemistry, where he worked in James Hopper’s laboratory. Long accepted a postdoctoral fellowship with Robert Singer at University of Massachusetts Medical School; there his research centered on RNA localization. Long discusses the process of conducting scientific research; setting up and running his laboratory; funding; the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences grant on his work; and his teaching and administrative responsibilities.
Kun Ping Lu was born in Pinghe County, a rural area of Fujian Province in southern China, one of six children. Despite his family’s poverty and lack of influence, when Lu reached high school age, he was able to take an entrance exam. His teachers encouraged him to consider college. He was accepted into Fujian Medical School, where he worked in Wang Qinchun’s lab. He began a master’s program at Suzhou Medical College, where he studied atherosclerosis. There he became interested in cell-growth regulation. Lu had his first plane ride, his first car ride, and his first view of the United States on his way to work as a technician in Anthony Means’s laboratory at Baylor College of Medicine. Eventually he was able to begin a doctoral program at Baylor; then he and the Means laboratory transferred to Duke University. Lu describes his doctoral work on calcium-calmodulin signaling in Aspergillus; the process of writing journal articles in the Means laboratory; and his postdoctoral fellowship in Tony Hunter’s laboratory at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. From there Lu accepted a position at Harvard School of Medicine. Lu describes his lab; his current research on characterizing the function of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 and telomere regulation in cell growth; the practical applications of his research; and the commercialization of his research.
Marvin Margoshes grew up in New York City, New York, one of three children. His parents had left the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his father from Galicia and his mother from Hungary, and had met as members of a Zionist organization. Margoshes himself was always interested in science, settling on chemistry when he was at Brooklyn Technical High School. After high school Margoshes worked in a chemistry lab at New York Medical School until he enlisted in the U.S. Army. The Army sent him to become an instrument technician in Kalamazoo, Michigan, but he was soon sent on to the Pacific theater, where he fought in the Battle of Leyte and the Battle of Okinawa. For a PhD Margoshes entered Iowa State University, where his advisor, Velmer Fassel, assigned him to run an infrared spectroscopy lab with George Hammond. Margoshes then began work in the analytical chemistry spectrometry group of Bourdon Scribner at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). At the NBS he worked with cyanogen, inductively coupled plasma with argon, the first laser probe, and he invented a coenzymometer (DetermiTubes). After nearly twenty years at NBS Margoshes went to work at Block Engineering, doing Fourier transform analysis with Tomas Hirschfeld. After just two years he moved to Technicon. Morris Shamos liked Margoshes and recognized his scientific knowledge and ability. He put Margoshes in charge of a program that offered grants for projects with a commercial value.
Rory M. Marks was born in Sydney, Australia. He was always interested in how things work, and once took apart the garbage disposal to better understand it. Marks attended the University of New South Wales, then entered medical school. After his third year he did an optional year of research, working with T-cell immunity to salmonella in rats; after three or four years in the same lab he chose vascular biology for his field. After an internship in Australia, Marks decided science was best in the United States, and went to the University of Michigan, working in Peter Ward’s lab on oxygen-deprived free radicals in vascular tissue damage. He is still at the University of Michigan, where he continues to study tropical diseases and their vascular implications.
Matthew L. Meyerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His family moved several times before finally settling in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when Matthew was seven. Meyerson’s interest in science began early: he loved to collect rocks and minerals and thought he might become a geologist. He decided early to attend Harvard University. He did research on quinones during college in Leslie Dutton’s laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania and on enzyme evolution in Steven Benner’s laboratory at Harvard. He spent a year in Japan at the University of Kyoto and then began medical school. Meyerson entered the joint health sciences and technology graduate program at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Meyerson pursued doctoral research on cyclin-dependent kinases involved in cell-cycle regulation in Edward Harlow’s laboratory at Harvard. Meyerson accepted a postdoctoral fellowship on cell immortalization in Robert Weinberg’s laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), then accepted a position at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and set up his lab to accord with his decision to work on lung cancer genetics. Meyerson discusses his research on cancer genomics, functional biochemistry, and computational subtraction genetic analysis; and broader applications of his work genetically targeting drug treatment for lung cancer.
Thomas W. Muir grew up in Stranraer, Scotland. His grandfather fueled Muir’s interest in mathematics, but large school classes offered little opportunity for teachers to foster his interests. He studied chemistry at University of Edinburgh, staying to pursue his PhD with Robert Ramage. He then undertook a postdoc with Stephen B.H. Kent at the Scripps Research Institute. Influenced by Mark J. Ginsberg’s work on cellular interactions, Muir switched his research from FTV protease to chemical ligation and the integrin system, eventually becoming a senior research associate. He then accepted a position at Rockefeller University. His research focuses on chemical biology and the use of chimeras of synthetic peptides and recombinant proteins for in vitro biochemical pathway studies. Muir discusses teaching, administrative duties, publishing, patents, funding, and collaborations.
John J. Ngai was born in New York City. He attended Pomona College because of their good science program, and came to love school in a way he had not previously. During his senior year, he worked with Elias Lazarides at Caltech, where he wrote his senior thesis. He returned to Lazarides’ lab for graduate school. Under Lazarides’ direction, students took no classes, focusing on lab work. After a postdoc at Columbia, Ngai took a position at University of California, Berkley, where his wife worked in his lab; she is largely responsible for having developed an anosmic mouse, a breakthrough that has been patented. His lab is also studying smell in zebrafish. Ngai is now head of the graduate program of the Neuroscience Institute.
Dimitar B. Nikolov grew up in Sofia, Bulgaria, the only child of a mother who is still a chemist and a father who was an electrical engineer. Nikolov often accompanied his mother to her lab, and he feels that he is a scientist because of both genes and upbringing. He enrolled in the biotechnology program at Sofia University, and he completed master’s degrees in both physics and biology. After the fall of the Berlin Wall it became easier for Nikolov to attend a foreign university, and he decided to apply to a PhD program in the United States. He chose Rockefeller University at first for neuroscience, but he later switched to structural biology and worked on transcription proteins in Steven Burley’s lab. After finishing his PhD, Nikolov accepted a faculty position at Sloan-Kettering Institute. His research has focused on axon guidance molecules in early development. Nikolov discusses his funding history, the impact of the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences grant on his research, and his belief that collaboration between academia and industrial science is important. He concludes his interview with a discussion of his professional goals and his future research on cell signaling and communication in neural development.
Lee Ann Niswander was born in Bluffton, Ohio. She loved school, especially mathematics and science. After high school, she worked on dude ranches for a few years before matriculating at the University of Colorado. She worked as a technician at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center before attending Case Western University. She also spent three months in Sweden, learning microdissection and microcloning, working on a phenotype that arises from a deletion of a part of mouse chromosome 7 and that has an early embryonic phenotype during gastrulation. She now works at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. She studies limb development in the chick embryo, neural tube patterning, and feather bud development. She also teaches at Weill Medical College of Cornell University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.
Thomas J. O’Dell was born in Berwick, Pennsylvania. He attended Indiana University of Pennsylvania to study psychology and natural science. He became interested in neuroscience after reading an article on the brain and memory in Scientific American. O’Dell matriculated at the University of Texas Medical Branch, where he rotated through Ernest S. Barratt’s laboratory, studying electrophysiology, but chose to perform his doctoral research on neurotransmitters in retinal neurons in Burgess N. Christensen’s laboratory. Next he took postdocs in Bradley E. Alger’s laboratory at the University of Maryland and Eric R. Kandel’s laboratory at Columbia University. O’Dell then accepted a position at the University of California, Los Angeles, working on beta-adrenergic receptors for norepinephrine and their role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory.
George A. O’Toole grew up in rural eastern Long Island, New York. In high school he was especially encouraged by a science teacher who praised O’Toole’s interests in science oriented shows like Nova and Nature. O’Toole participated in a research program for high school students at Catholic University of America in Washington D.C., where he was first exposed to cell biology. O’Toole matriculated at Cornell University where he worked in the microbiology research laboratory of Steven H. Zinder had a paper accepted to the Cornell Undergraduate Journal of Science. O’Toole began his graduate research as Jorge C. Escalante-Semerena’s first graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, focusing his research on the genetics and biosynthesis of Vitamin B12. He published nine papers, learning the process of writing a scientific paper directly from Escalante-Semerena. Upon finishing his Ph.D., O’Toole undertook his post-doctoral research with Roberto Kolter at Harvard Medical School, then accepted a position at Dartmouth Medical School and worked as a consultant for his friend’s company, Microbia. O’Toole received a Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences award from which have come numerous collaborations and a networking system. Throughout the interview O’Toole discusses the current climate of funding, mentoring, scientific ethics, and the importance of translational research with regard to scientific responsibility.
Michael J. Overduin was born in Ontario, Canada and studied biology at Wilfrid Laurier University, completing a thesis with Bernard Glick on the transformation of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Esherichia coli by electroporation. He attended Rockefeller University for graduate studies in structural biology, working with David Cowburn and using nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the structure of a signal transduction protein. After a postdoc, he accepted a position at University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and began to research domain structure of receptors involved in endocytosis. He also assisted in establishing an NMR spectroscopy facility and biomolecular structure program while there. After several years, he moved to University of Birmingham, helping build the NMR spectroscopy facility and continuing research on complex systems and protein domains of therapeutic targets.
Samuel L. Pfaff was born and raised in Rochester, Minnesota, where a high school biology teacher suggested he volunteer in a Mayo Clinic laboratory. In Peter Dyck’s neurology lab there, Pfaff contributed to research on Wallerian degeneration and presented at local, state, and National Science Fairs. At Carleton College, a class with Dr. Ross Shoger’s proved quite influential. He attended University of California, Berkley for graduate school, to study with Peter Duesberg whose lab focused on how oncogenes functions. After a postdoc he joined the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, researching gene combinations for regulation of motor neurons in spinal cord development. Pfaff discusses balancing family life and career, funding, educating the public about science, the relationship of politics and science, and more.
George C. Prendergast was born and raised in Philadelphia and attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he was inspired to study biochemistry by a chance exposure to James Watson’s Molecular Biology of the Gene. He went on to graduate research at Yale University, but becoming interested in cancer genes switched to Princeton where in Michael Cole’s laboratory he cloned and characterized the first genes regulated by the Myc oncogene. As a postdoctoral fellow in Edward Ziff’s laboratory at New York University, which studied oncogenic transcription factors, Prendergast defined the dimerization and DNA recognition functions of Myc required in cancer. Having moved to Merck Research Laboratories to translate these findings to cancer therapy, Prendergast soon became frustrated and left to accept an independent position at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, where he expanded his studies to encompass Ras inhibitors and programmed cell death. In seeking to merge academic and pharmaceutical efforts to pursue new therapeutic principles, Prendergast subsequently became senior director of cancer research at DuPont Pharmaceuticals, thereby becoming a principal investigator for two laboratories at Wistar and DuPont.
Karin M. Reinisch grew up in Massachusetts and attended Harvard University, where she majored in chemistry, liking to solve problems, but not liking labs. She had Maitland Jones and George Whitesides and worked in the Whitesides lab. She stayed at Harvard for graduate school; there she worked on methyltransferase in William Lipscomb’s lab. Reinisch’s thesis research became a paper for Cell. Reinisch then accepted a postdoc in Stephen Harrison’s lab, where she worked on her reovirus project and published a paper in Nature. From there she accepted a position at Yale University. Reinisch describes developing her own lab, recruiting postdocs, and her current projects, as well as ethics classes, cultural differences, the future of membrane trafficking, women in science, and science education.
Christopher Rongo was born in Las Vegas, Nevada. His undergraduate work at the University of California, San Diego fed his love of science, but a difficult research project in Ruth Lehmann’s lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) nearly ended his scientific career. Refocusing his efforts and determination, he was finally able to succeed in Lehmann’s lab, and graduate just before she left MIT. He faced similar obstacles in Josh Kaplan’s lab, first at Massachusetts General Hospital and then at the University of California, Berkeley. Despite setbacks as a graduate student and a postdoc, Rongo’s career flourished as a professor. The majority of his interview is focused on his work with Rutgers and the challenges faced by principal investigators attempting to juggle social lives, funding applications, and their own desire to be at the bench. His increased interest in medical relevance in his work fuels his ambition. He looks towards what science has to offer in the future and is excited by the prospects that lie ahead, while openly facing the challenges presented to him. He discusses his receipt of the Pew Biomedical Scholars Award and what that has meant to his career.
Stephen R.J. Salton was born in Cambridge, England and grew up in New Jersey. During high school, he spent a summer in the Joel Oppenheim and Martin Nachbar labs at New York University. Salton entered the University of Pennsylvania, where he found biochemistry courses exciting, then entered New York University's M.D./Ph.D. program. There, he did research in pharmacology under Michael Shelanski and Lloyd Greene, making antibodies for work on PC12 cell surface glycoprotein response to nerve growth factor v (NGF) treatments. He found exciting the evolution of molecular biology techniques into a widely accessible tool that can decrease the tedium of large-scale DNA analysis. He discusses the role of small labs, publishing, and funding, as well as Mount Sinai Medical School, where he now works.
Thomas F. Schilling was born in Richmond, Virginia. He matriculated into Davidson College, majoring in biology. A class in physiological psychology led to an interest in neuroscience. Schilling entered the PhD program in the University of Michigan biology department, joining the laboratory of R. Glenn Northcutt to study the neuroanatomy of the visual system. Northcutt’s departure combined with a developing interest in zebrafish led Schilling to apply to the PhD program at the University of Oregon. There, he worked in the lab of Charles Kimmel and made neural crest lineages in zebrafish his dissertation topic. Schilling accepted a postdoc at Imperial Cancer Research Fund in London, England, where he entered Philip Ingham’s lab to study Drosophila and to help set up a zebrafish lab. Soon after his arrival, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard asked Schilling to work at the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen, Germany, on craniofacial anomalies in zebrafish. After some time in Germany, he returned to London, where he rediscovered his interest in neural crest, but also discovered a mutation in the enzyme that synthesizes retinoic acid (RA), and RA became the second major focus of his lab. He then accepted an assistant professorship at University of California, Irvine. Schilling discusses funding in general, and the Pew Scholars Program in the Biomedical Sciences grant; compares the Wellcome grant with National Institutes of Health and other American grants; and reflects on benchwork, on his mentoring style, and on the necessity of informing the public about scientific endeavors.
William C. Sha grew up in Chicago. His father and mother worked at the Argonne National Laboratory. During high school, he published with Ejup N. Ganic, later President of Bosnia and Herzegovina. While studying at the University of Chicago, he worked at Argonne National Laboratory with Ely M. Gelbard, a formative experience that convinced him to enter an MD/PhD program. He attended Washington University, where he studied immunology with Dennis Y. Loh before accepting a postdoc with David Baltimore at Rockefeller University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sha then accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley. He conducts immunology research on the role of costimulatory molecules in regulating the immune response and on B- and T lymphocyte cell interactions.
Michael D. Sheets was born in West Lafayette, Indiana. In undergrad, he did not see a clear science path, but a counselor encouraged him to get lab experience. Excited by molecular biology, he applied to the University of Wisconsin because they could provide a good general science education. There Michael worked on polyadenylation of RNA in Marvin Wickens’s lab.Sheets accepted a postdoc at University of California, Berkeley, working in John Gerhart’s laboratory, where he developed an antibody library for studying gene function during frog development. Today, Sheets continues his research at University of Wisconsin on regulating gene expression in vertebrate development. He works at the bench, teaches, writes grant proposals and journal articles, and ponders the applicability of his research for clinical use.
James L. Sherley was born in Memphis, Tennessee. As a child, he liked performing experiments and soon decided he wanted to be a microbiologist. Though he was high school valedictorian, the title was given to the Caucasian salutatorian instead. As the listed salutatorian, he still gave the valediction because the true salutatorian insisted. At Harvard Sherley joined Mark Ptashne’s lab, where he worked on lambda phage and tumor repression. Interested in studying cancer, he joined the MD/PhD program at Johns Hopkins University, where he studied thymidine kinase in Thomas J. Kelly’s lab. After a postdoc at Princeton, he became an associate member at the Fox Chase Cancer Center, where he stayed for seven years before joining the faculty of MIT.
Rudolf Signer starts his oral history interview by talking about his family background in Switzerland and his study of chemistry at ETH followed, Graduate research on polyoxymethylenes with Staudinger introduced Signer to the young field of polymer chemistry. A Rockefeller Fellowship enabled Signer to work with Svedberg at Uppsala and with Bragg at Manchester. Signer concludes with recollections of a post-war tour of the United States and of his memories of Staudinger.
John Sondek grew up in Lewiston, New York. He took his first biochemistry class in high school, but his first research experience occurred during college at the University of Rochester, where he became very interested in biochemistry as a career. He attended graduate school at Johns Hopkins University with David Shortle, and then took a postdoctoral fellowship with Paul Sigler at Yale University. He found that Shortle and Sigler had different mentoring styles, both of which influenced his own. Sondek then accepted a position at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He discusses his obligation to provide service to his professional community and to promote the national science agenda, as well as his current research in the structural biology of signal transduction and practical applications of his work.
David J. Sullivan, Jr. grew up in Birmingham, Alabama, surrounded by a large and supportive family. He cites the importance of his family’s Catholicism, strong work ethic, and their emphasis on Scouting in fostering his interests. His scientific interests blossomed throughout the 1980s against the backdrop of HIV and other infectious diseases, and he became interested in bioethics during medical school. Sullivan also worked at a clinic in Mussoorie, India during the last few months of medical school, an experience he describes in detail. During his residency at Washington University in St. Louis, Sullivan worked with Daniel E. Goldberg and concentrated his infectious disease research on Malaria. Continuing his efforts on heme crystallization and Zinc photoporphyrin-9, Sullivan brought his research to Johns Hopkins University, where he is today.
Karel Svoboda was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, but grew up in Germany. Wanting to avoid Germany’s mandatory military service, Svoboda attended undergrad in the United States at Cornell University, where he worked in a number of research labs. After a year teaching in Nepal, he went to Harvard for graduate studies. His love of Bell Laboratories during his undergraduate years brought him back there for postdoctoral research on synapses with Winfred Denk and David Tank, and gave him the opportunity to take an influential course on neural systems at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. Svoboda is now at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, studying biophysical neuroscience in neocortical circuits and their plasticity, with the intent of expanding his work to ensembles of neocortical circuits.
William S. Talbot grew up in Gainesville, Florida. Although he did not appreciate it at the time, growing up in a university town provided him with access to several influential teachers. For example, a science project brought him into the lab of Edward Wakeland to work on the nature and extent of variation in wild mouse populations. Talbot continued working with Wakeland as an undergraduate at University of Florida, Gainesville. He moved to graduate studies at Stanford University, working with David S. Hogness on the hormonal control of metamorphosis in Drosophila. After a postdoc, he accepted a position at the Skirball Institute, where he researched the genes involved in tissue development of zebrafish. Soon, Talbot returned to Stanford, where he works in vertebrate developmental biology.
Song Tan was born in London, England, and lived in Singapore and the US during his childhood. He remembers always being interested in science, especially the chemical elements. He was in an honors program in high school that allowed students to work in university labs around Miami. He worked in Richard Doepker’s lab at the University of Miami, where he analyzed the products of burning plastic. Tan took fourth place in the Westinghouse Talent Search; he used his scholarship at Cornell University, which had the added attraction of a synchrotron. He majored in physics, but with a concentration in biochemistry. At the University of Cambridge, he worked with Trevor Lamb and Timothy Richmond. Tan moved with Richmond to Zurich, Switzerland. Upon finishing his work with Richmond, Tan accepted an assistant professorship at Penn State University.
Toshio Tsukiyama was born in Chiba, Japan. Influenced by his sister, he attended veterinary school in Hokkaido and became interested in research. There, Toshio read an article by Ohtsura Niwa and he decided he wanted to study with him at Hiroshima University. Niwa had obtained his PhD from Stanford University and was familiar with American courses of study; he made Toshio read and present books and articles, something the Japanese did not do, and convinced Toshio to come to the United States. At the Whitehead Center for Biomedical Research, Toshio worked on chromatin remodeling in Carl Wu’s lab. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center then hired him as an associate member, where he continues research on the regulation of chromatin structure and its effect on cellular processes.
Mark D. Van Doren became interested in biology during high school science classes; even before college, he undertook summer research at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo. At Cornell, Van Doren worked with Efraim Racker who exposed him to the complexities of scientific practice, including research ethics and the need for experimental replication and validation. He published in a scientific journal, an experience that helped him decide upon laboratory science as his career. He then worked at Oncogene Science prior to starting graduate work at University of California, San Diego. There, Van Doren developed an interest in Drosophila and decided to pursue research on the biochemistry of Drosophila BHLH proteins, resulting in a 1991 Development paper. He is now at Johns Hopkins University, where he continues his Drosophila research.
Monica L. Vetter grew up in Markham, Canada and attended McGill University. Her interest in science led to several summers spent in various academic labs working on muscle contraction, motor cortex and motor control in primates, and neural control of eye movements. She attended University of California, San Francisco for graduate school, researching molecular genetics and signaling pathways in neuronal cells. She remained there for a postdoc in Yuh Nung Jan’s laboratory, focusing on ath5 transcription factor and the regulation of the initial events in vertebrate retinal neural development. Finally, she accepted a faculty appointment at University of Utah. Vetter talks about the biomedical revolution, her decision to pursue academic research, patents, history of science, and the role of scientists in scientific public policy and literacy.
Henrique P. von Gersdorff was born in Brazil, but his father worked for the United Nations, so his family moved several times. He liked mathematics and resolved early to be a theoretical physicist. He also liked taking things apart to see how they worked. Von Gersdorff matriculated into the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, then pursued a master’s degree in theoretical physics at Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas. Though he first received a PhD in physics, he soon found himself intrigued by the brain’s workings. He entered Gary Matthews’s neurophysiology laboratory at Stony Brook and earned a PhD in neurobiology. Von Gersdorff accepted an offer from the Vollum Institute in Portland, Oregon. He discusses the setting-up of his lab, funding, collaboration, and the workings of Oregon Health & Science University.
Matthew K. Waldor grew up near Newark, New Jersey and attended Yale University. He had his first real research experience at Woods Hole Science Center working on neural systems in the leech nervous system. His interest in scientific research piqued, Waldor sought out research while in medical school at Stanford and ended up in Larry Steinman’s laboratory studying autoimmunity in the nervous system, specifically developing mouse models. After his residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Waldor began a fellowship in infectious diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital and then a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard Medical School, researching a new strain of epidemic cholera. From there he accepted a position at Tufts University, conducting research in microbial genetics and infectious diseases studying phage replication, regulation, and antibiotic resistance.
Wilma M. Wasco was raised in Fairfield, Connecticut. While at University of Connecticut, she worked for Guillermo Fallar, a neuroscientist, and Ian McClellan, biochemist, Wanting to study molecular pharmacology, she attended Albert Einstein College of Medicine, where she conducted research with George A. Orr and published her first paper. She then took a postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, working with Frank Solomon on microtubular-associated proteins, specifically identifying and characterizing amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1); during her studies she received a National Research Service Award. Wasco became a research fellow, and then an assistant professor at Harvard University, researching neuronal cell death in normal and neurodegenerative cells with implications for Alzheimer’s disease research, and becoming an assistant geneticist at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Jason D. Weber grew up in Edwardsville, Illinois and attended Bradley University to study biotechnology, a new field that was to become what is now molecular biology. A radiation biology class led him into the study of cancer and tumor suppression. He loved working in the lab and knew he wanted to do that for his career. Before entering graduate school he spent a year and a half at Monsanto, working on Celebrex® in Peter Isakson’s lab. For his PhD he went into St. Louis University’s cell and molecular biology program, where Joseph Baldassare became his mentor, working on the cell cycle and publishing five papers in addition to his thesis. He is now an associate professor at Washington University in St. Louis.
Philip B. Wedegaertner grew up in Stockton, California and attended University of California, Davis. He had opportunities to with James W. Blankenship in the School of Pharmacy at University of the Pacific and in Donald M. Carlson’s laboratory. Wedegaertner pursued graduate work in biochemistry at University of California, San Diego. There he worked with Gordon N. Gill synthesizing and characterizing the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Wedegaertner took a postdoc with Claude Cochet in Grenoble, France. After another postdoc at University of California, San Francisco, he accepted a position at Thomas Jefferson University, continuing work on G proteins. Wedegaertner explores the history of science, tenure, competition and collaboration, the national scientific agenda, privatization of research, and lessons learned becoming a principal investigator.
J. Lawrence Wilson begins his oral history interview with a discussion of his childhood in Rosedale, Mississippi and education at Culver Military Academy in Culver, Indiana. After high school, he received a Naval Reserves Officer Training Corps scholarship to attend Vanderbilt University, where he majored in mechanical engineering. Wilson graduated in 1958, and he then served in the Navy for several years, stationed in Bermuda. When he returned, Wilson attended Harvard Business School, receiving his M.B.A. in 1963. Two years later, he joined Rohm and Haas Company. Wilson discusses his views on scientific innovation, his time in Europe, and the changes in Rohm and Haas and the chemical industry, in general, over the past three decades. Wilson concludes the interview with a discussion of the chemical industry’s environmental concerns, Rohm and Haas’s acquisition of Morton International, his work with the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and his family.
E. Bright Wilson, Jr. begins his oral history interview with a description of his family, early education, and his undergraduate and graduate studies at Princeton University, where he was inspired by the intellectual atmosphere and affable faculty. After reviewing the curriculum, his senior thesis on quantum mechanics, and his experience at Tuxedo Park, he recalls his years at the California Institute of Technology, where he began work with vibration and group theory. Next, he describes his work at Harvard, focusing on advances in spectroscopy, and his government research at Woods Hole and in Washington, D.C. Wilson concludes with a brief profile of his family and a few remarks on his publications.
Thomas E. Wilson grew up in Neenah, Wisconsin. While his father, a chemical engineer, often brought work-related discussions home, his mother, a teacher, also encouraged the academic environment of the household. During undergrad, Wilson was involved in the Medical Scholars Program, pursued biology research with Charles B. Kaspar, and built musical instruments. He then decided upon a MD/PhD program at Washington University in St. Louis, where he could continue his interest in medicine but pursue a laboratory research program as well. Joining Jeffrey D. Milbrant’s laboratory, Wilson undertook a DNA binding project that allowed him to collaborate with yeast geneticist Mark Johnston. After his residency and postdoc, Wilson joined the University of Michigan pathology department, which allows him laboratory opportunities while maintaining ties to the clinical world.
William Wishnick begins his oral history interview by describing his parents' careers and the founding of the Wishnick-Tumpeer Chemical Company in 1920. His father's company, now called Witco, expanded with the acquisition of several domestic arid international companies and went public in 1958. After serving in the military and completing his education, Wishnick began working for the company in 1949 until his retirement in 1990. Wishnick discusses company growth, the diversification of product lines, and how the nature of doing business has changed over the years.
Harland G. Wood begins his oral history interview with a brief discussion of his role in the restructuring of Western Reserve University's medical curriculum. He then reflects on his childhood and education, and first interest in chemistry. He chronicles his career in chemistry and molecular biology from his college years through his extensive laboratory research at Iowa State College, where he first developed his concept of the fixation of carbon dioxide by bacteria. Throughout the interview, in addition to discussing research and the influence of various colleagues and associates, he often focuses on the numerous advancements that have occurred during his lifetime and their impact (both positive and negative) on the way laboratory research is conducted. He concludes with his thoughts on the future of science, stressing the importance of continued enthusiasm and motivation in scientists of all ages.
Sarah A. Woodson was born in Warren, Michigan. Though her father believed that women had a subservient place in society and should not work, Woodson’s mother helped her get into Kalamazoo College, where she studied chemistry. After spending a year at a lab in France, she began working in Morton Rabin’s lab at Wayne State University. Next, she went to Yale University, where she studied nucleic acids using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After five years, she spent three years as a postdoc with Thomas Cech at University of Colorado. There she studied RNA, discovering reverse self-splicing. She is now a professor at Johns Hopkins University, where she teaches, runs her lab, publish, and mentors lab members.
Edgar Woolard begins his oral history interview with a description of his family and childhood years in Washington, North Carolina, where his parents encouraged him to excel in both academic and social environments. Woolard enrolled in North Carolina State University as a nuclear engineering major. In his junior year, he switched his major to industrial engineering, received his B.S. in 1956, and accepted a position at Alcoa in Maryville, Tennessee. Woolard left Alcoa after one year to serve a six-month term in the U.S. Army. Upon his return, he was offered a job at DuPont, where he was shortly promoted into management. Woolard entered DuPont’s Planning Division in 1976, where he oversaw many breakthroughs in DuPont polymers, especially Dacron production. Throughout his career, Woolard helped shape DuPont into a more streamlined and environmentally friendly company. In 1983, under DuPont’s new system, Woolard was given responsibility for three departments: Agricultural Chemicals Division, Medical Division, and Photo Products Division. He served in that capacity for three years before becoming Vice Chairman and Chief Operating Officer, becoming CEO in 1987. Although his tenure was difficult, his efforts proved successful for both DuPont and its employees. For his earnest reorganization of DuPont, Woolard received the Chemical Industry Medal in 1998. Woolard concluded the interview with a discussion of DuPont’s major achievements during his career, retirement, and thoughts on his family.
John Wotiz begins his oral history interview with a description of his family and childhood years in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia, attending Technical University of Prague, and studying chemical engineering. Wotiz and his brother left Czechoslovakia for the United States in 1939. Wotiz received scholarship to attend Furman University, where he completed his B.S. degree in chemistry in 1941. While working towards his Ph.D., Wotiz served in the U.S. Army as a lieutenant in the Chemical Warfare Service. After receiving his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Ohio State University in 1948, Wotiz accepted an instructor position with the University of Pittsburgh. He left in 1957 to become a research supervisor at Diamond Alkali Company, but he returned to Marshall University in 1962. In 1967, Wotiz assumed the chemistry department chairmanship at Southern Illinois University, . In 1969, Wotiz made an extended study of chemistry education in the Soviet Union under an exchange arrangement between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.
Hao Wu grew up in China, during which time her family was separated and forced to relocate to the countryside during the Cultural Revolution. Despite this turmoil, Wu excelled in school. She enrolled in Peking Union Medical College in Beijing, a highly selective, combined eight year bachelor’s and medical degree program founded by the Rockefeller Foundation, where she took courses taught in English and a semester of Immunology research which piqued her interest in laboratory work. At an international biochemistry meeting, Wu discovered the structural biology research of Michael Rossmann, and after some difficulty obtaining her visa, Wu began the Ph.D. program at Purdue University joining Rossmann’s laboratory. She ultimately joined the faculty at Weill Medical College of Cornell University.
Kurt Wüthrich begins his oral history interview by discussing the emergence of his interest in chemistry during his high school years. He remained interested in the sciences while at University of Basel and divided his time between sports, physics, and chemistry, and in March 1964 he received his Ph.D. in chemistry, doing research with an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer [EPR] to study the catalytic action of metal compounds. After receiving his Ph.D., he undertook post-doctoral reserach at University of California, Berkeley on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In 1969, he returned to Switzerland to work at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich. He concludes his interview by discussing his continued research in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a Professor of Biophysics at ETH Zürich and a Professor of Structural Biology at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California.
Yue Xiong was born in Nanchang. His father was a scholar sent to a labor camp during the Cultural Revolution, and his mother struggled to support the family. After high school Xiong worked on the farm where his family lived. When the Cultural Revolution ended, Xiong attended Fudan University. James Watson's book on the molecular biology of the gene inspired him. Interested in the China-United States Biochemistry Examination and Application program, Xiong learned English and went to the University of Rochester, where he entered Thomas Eickbush’s laboratory researching DNA sequencing and transposable elements of the chorea gene. Xiong helped develop the mild-extracting method for isolating linealized and supercoiled DNA. He is now at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, looking at cell-cycle control and tumor suppression.
Zhaohui Xu was born in Suzhou, China. Because the Cultural Revolution dictated a child’s future occupation, education options were limited, and there were few books, no movies, no television. Soon things began to change, and in junior high school Xu began science classes. He attended University of Science and Technology of China for its broader science base. Xu loved the excitement of discovery to be found in basic science, but because Chinese research facilities were so limited, he knew he wanted to go to graduate school elsewhere, eventually attending University of Minnesota. After his Ph.D. and six years in Paul Sigler’s lab at Yale, he accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Michigan. There, he works on crystal structure of the trigger factor, crystal structure of the cytosolic chaperones GroEL and GroES, and SecA and SecB.
Lili Yamasaki grew up near Detroit, Michigan. She had an early interest in art and writing, which she believes leads to creativity in science. Like all her siblings, Yamasaki attended University of Michigan for undergrad, where she studied chemistry, but diversified her education with humanities classes. During summers she worked in various labs focused on chemistry. After graduating, she accepted a position doing enzymology research at Stanford University with Donna L. Wong and Roland D. Ciaranello. Wanting to obtain a doctoral degree, she attended University of Texas Health Science Center, where she worked with Robert E. Lanford on receptor specificity in nuclear transport. After a postdoc, Yamasaki took a position at Columbia University, looking at the regulation of growth and development by suppressors and activators.
Philip D. Zamore spent his childhood in New York City and Long Island. As an undergraduate, Zamore developed his interest in science and decided to focus on molecular biology. He spent time in several laboratories, though the majority of his laboratory experience was at Massachusetts General Hospital with John H. Hartwig. Staying at Harvard for a semester after graduating to work as a laboratory technician with Michael R. Green, Zamore decided to conduct his graduate research there as well. He moved with Green from Harvard to the University of Massachusetts, Worcester, where his work on snRNP flourished. He detailed his experiences with RNAi and his early work running his own laboratory. Throughout the interview Zamore discussed the importance of writing and publishing and his relationship with his students, as well as balancing his family life with his career.
Yixian Zheng was born in Chongqing, China. She went to school on the campus of Chongqing University, where her parents were faculty. The end of the Cultural Revolution brought about a radical change in Zheng’s education. She entered Sichuan University and soon became interested in cell biology. Encouraged by her father, who was a visiting professor at University of Akron, Zheng applied to Ohio State University’s graduate program. She worked in Berl R. Oakley’s laboratory; her graduate thesis focused on gamma tubulin and centrosome function. Zheng took a postdoc in Bruce Alberts’s laboratory at University of California, San Francisco, where she continued research on centrosome function and purification of the gamma tubulin complex. She then accepted a position at the Carnegie Institute, where she is today.
Z. Hong Zhou was born in China the year before the Cultural Revolution. At the end of the Cultural Revolution, China committed itself to science and Zhou’s father spent a month’s salary on a set of science books for Zhou to encourage his education. When he was fourteen, Zhou went to high school at a boarding school away from his village, not returning to his home for over a year. With an interest in high-energy physics, he attended University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei. He received a master’s under Lienchao Tsien, conducting research using cyclotron radiation imaging, then attended graduate school at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. He is now at University of Texas Medical Center, studying viruses using structural and computational biology.
Bruno Zimm in his oral history recalls growing up in Woodstock, New York. where he had a growing fascination with science. Zimm undertook both undergraduate and graduate studies at Columbia University, where he recalls faculty, curricula, adn the effect of World War II on the research activities. In 1944, Zimm transferred to Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute to work on a wartime project on the degradation of polyvinyl chloride. Here he started his study of the theory and practice of the light scattering of polymer solutions, which he continued at the University of California, Berkeley. Later, Zimm moved to the General Electric laboratories at Schenectady, where he further developed his studies of dynamic methods for the investigation of polymer solutions. A short time as a visiting professor at Yale University rekindled his interests in biological polymers, especially DNA. At the University of California, San Diego, Zimm continued instrumental research as well as his theoretical interests. The interview closes with Zimm reflecting on the changes in polymer science over the duration of his career, and he comments on educational opportunities in this discipline.
Thomas C. Alber grew up as an American in post World War II Japan and moved to Los Angeles in 1964. While attending the University of California, Santa Cruz Alber worked in Anthony L. Fink’s enzyme mechanism laboratory. As a graduate student, he did research at various laboratories including those at the University of California, San Diego, Berkeley, Oxford, and MIT. After earning his Ph.D., Alber started his postdoctoral research with Brian W. Matthews at the University of Oregon, before moving on to the University of Utah and then University of California, Berkeley. These moves allow him to reflect on the ways in which university science model differs at a range of institutions and varies from science in other nations.
Paul J. Anderson discovered a love of science as a child, which he nurtured through his degree in biology from the State University of New York, Stony Brook. Bernard Dudock inspired Anderson to work in William Bauer’s labs, where he was encouraged to design experiments and met Francis Crick. Anderson entered an MD/PhD program at New York University. He specialized in rheumatology for his clinical years at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and worked at Stuart F. Schlossman’s lab at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. He helped found the biotechnology company Apoptosis Technology. Anderson believes we will continue to learn more about the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, which will allow us to interfere in the molecular cell death and to control diseases like cancer or organ rejection.
Peter R. Arvan’s family background played an important role in his development, including his mother’s escape from Nazi Germany as a teenager. His decision to pursue science developed from his involvement in the National Science Foundation Summer Program in Biochemistry before his senior year in high school. Arvan joined Efraim Racker’s laboratory at Cornell University and then pursued his Ph.D. at Yale University, working in the research laboratory of J. David Castle, and completed his residency at the University of North Carolina and Yale. Throughout the interview Arvan discussed the difficulties of scientific funding, the fortuitous events which have shaped his scientific thinking, and the difficulties inherent in the M.D./Ph.D. program.
Charles K. Barlowe was raised in Saluda, Virginia. Following in his family’s footsteps, Barlowe attended the College of William and Mary for undergrad, where he studied chemistry. He worked with Gary C. DeFotis, analyzing crystal complexes by x-ray diffraction method and measuring their ferromagnetic properties with large magnets. Barlowe next received a position with I. David Goldman in the Hematology/Oncology department of the Medical College of Virginia, where he worked on antifolate polyglutamylation and competitive drug displacement at dihydrofolate reductase as important elements in leucovorin rescue. While receiving his doctorate at the University of Texas, he studied with Dean R. Appling and continued research on tetrahydrofolate enzymology. After a postdoc with Randy Schekman at the University of California Berkeley, family and professional considerations led him to accept a faculty position at Dartmouth Medical School, where he now has his lab.
Brenda L. Bass grew up in Florida. After briefly attending Emory University, she transferred to Colorado College, obtaining her degree in chemistry. She became a research technician at Rush Medical College, where she worked for three years before returning to University of Colorado, Boulder to pursue a PhD. There she worked in Thomas R. Cech’s lab, focusing on self-splicing RNA and its implications for biological catalysis. In 1985, she accepted a post-doc with Harold Weintraub in Seattle, Washington and worked at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center for four years. She then accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Utah, where she is still an associate professor and an assistant investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Carolyn Bertozzi grew up in Lexington, Massachusetts and attended Harvard. Though she majored in chemistry, she worked in a biochemistry lab, where Joseph Grabowski was so impressed with her work that he required her to write a graduation thesis, which he then submitted for an award. He convinced her to attend University of California, Berkeley. There, wrote her doctoral dissertation on the synthesis of carbohydrate analogues for biological applications. Continuing her interest in carbohydrates, and contrary to the advice of other chemists, she next worked in Steven Rosen’s cell biology laboratory at the University of California, San Francisco. She now has her lab at University of California, Berkley. She and Rosen also founded Thios Pharmaceuticals, Inc. At Berkeley she enjoys teaching, publishing, and managing her lab.
Mark D. Biggin grew up in Chesterfield, England and developed an early interest in science thanks to an inspiring biology teacher. He attended the University of Lancaster and so loved working in a lab that he applied to graduate school at Cambridge University, where he joined Frederick Sanger’s Division at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology. There he worked in Bart Bart Barrell’s lab, where he sequenced Epstein-Barr virus DNA. After becoming interested in transcription, he took a post-doc at Robert Tjian’s lab at U.C. Berkeley. He then moved to a professorship in Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, where he continues to teach, advise graduate students, and work in his laboratory.
James B. Bliska was born in Grand Junction, Colorado. Yearly summer trips to his family’s lake house sparked his interest in biology. While working as a dishwasher in a lab at the University of Wisconsin, Bliska first tried his hand at research. Eventually he was performing lab procedures and publishing. Bliska attended the University of California, Berkeley’s Molecular Biology Ph.D. program, researching DNA topology during site-specific recombination reactions. He next took a postdoc in Stanley Falkow’s lab at Stanford University, where he attempted to purify a biologically active form of a Yersinia surface membrane protein. Bliska then became a principal investigator at SUNY Stony Brook and received tenure. He studies bacterial-host cell interactions in hopes of explaining a method of toxin delivery that has widespread medical applications.
James Anthony Borowiec was born in Buffalo, New York, and was interested in science from an early age. He received his B.S. in Organic Chemistry from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1980, and his Ph.D. in biochemistry from UCLA in 1986. Borowiec worked in Paul D. Boyer’s laboratory at the Molecular Biology Institute, and then in Jay D. Gralla’s laboratory. He researched DNA supercoiling; lac; and footprinting technique. He obtained a post-doc at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In 1989 he was appointed assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry at New York University Medical Center. His work continues there, encompassing replication of linear DNA, flaws in C. Richard Wobbe’s discovery of SSB DNA, T-antigen, ARS, and bovine papillomavirus.
James U. Bowie was born in Rochester, Minnesota. He discovered biology and proteins while working at the Mayo Clinic, where his father worked.. Bowie received his B.A. from Carleton College, then spent a year as a lab technician, which convinced him against attending medical school. He attended Michigan Institute of Technology for his Ph.D instead. Next, he accepted a postdoc in chemistry and biochemistry at University of California, Los Angeles, where he focused on analyzing the sequence and structure of proteins through computational biology and on the use of computer programming to predict protein structure. He also developed an interest in characterizing the structure, function, and regulation of human cell membrane proteins. Bowie is now a faculty member at UCLA.
Christopher Bradfield grew up near San Francisco, California. Calling himself a late bloomer, he began to see the value in learning only after high school. He received a two-year degree from Skyline College and his BA from University of California, Davis. Bradfield next attended the University of California, Berkeley, entering Leonard F. Bjeldanes’ lab. He became so involved in his project that he finished a PhD instead of a master’s degree. He then took a postdoc in Alan P. Poland’s lab at the University of Wisconsin, where he flourished. He briefly accepted a position at Northwestern University before moving to McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research at University of Wisconsin. Throughout the interview, Bradfield discusses creativity in science, laboratory work, planning research, and more.
Kenneth H. Britten was born in Washington, D.C. He received his B.S. in biology from the California Institute of Technology, where he became interested in neuroscience and neuroethology. He received his Ph.D. in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and remained there for his postdoc in William T. Newsome’s lab, later moving with Newsome to Stanford University. Britten and Newsome worked together closely, using psychophysics to map and measure the neuromechanics of perceptive visual fields in primates. In 1993, Britten was appointed assistant professor in the Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior at the University of California, Davis. Britten’s research focuses on extrastriate visual cortex in primates and how they respond to complex visual stimuli.
Frances M. Brodsky grew up in Princeton, New Jersey, where her seventh-grade teacher got her interested in biology. In 1972 she entered Radcliffe, where she majored in biochemical sciences. Through a biochemistry mentoring program, Brodsky worked for three summers in Paul D. Gottlieb’s laboratory at MIT. While at Oxford University, she worked in Walter F. Bodmer’s laboratory, where she researched monoclonal antibodies. In a career that spanned academia and industry, she worked for Stanford University, Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, and the University of California, San Francisco. Brodsky discusses the issues surrounding funding and how that affects laboratory management, the recent decision by the Board of Regents of the University of California to abolish affirmative action, and the ways scientific collaboration and controversies have affected her.
Jochen Buck was born and grew up in Reutlingen, Germany. During the Vietnam War, he became a conscientious objector, working with disabled youths. He decided to become a doctor, but in medical school at the University of Tübingen, he discovered that he loved scientific research. He worked in Ulrich Hammerling’s lab, where he localized cell growth caused by autocrine growth factor. He accepted a postdoctoral position at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, working with Vitamin A and discovering retro-retinoids. Next, he accepted an assistant professorship at Cornell University Medical College. He is now an associate at Cornell, where his lab and Lonny Levin’s share space and where he and Levin work together on adenylyl cyclase.
Ralph C. Budd grew up in Middletown, New York, where he had teachers who fostered his interest in science and mathematics, and attended Cornell University. During his residency at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Budd began specializing in rheumatology. He did postdoctoral work in Kendall A. Smith’s lab at Dartmouth College, where he found his medical practice and his research influencing each other. He went to Lausanne, Switzerland, to study T lymphocyte development in lymphoproliferative mice at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, and studied immunology at Stanford University. After a year at Genentech, he settled at the University of Vermont, where he continues to teach, mentor, and do research. He believes basic science is crucial, attempting to direct results is counterproductive, and is interested in therapeutic applications of his research.
Stephen Buratowski grew up in Iselin, New Jersey. He liked to read science stories and mysteries (Jules Verne and Encyclopedia Brown), and knew as a child that he wanted to be a scientist. A Princeton University recruiter helped him decide to attend Princeton, which he called “paradise.” There he met George Khoury, and asked to study in Khoury’s lab at the National Cancer Institute during the summer. There he did recombinant DNA for the first time. In Philip Sharp’s lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he worked with Steven Hahn on TFIID. He got a “spectacular” thesis from his work. After some time at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, he accepted an assistant professorship at Harvard University, where he is today.
Andrew Camilli was born in Lima, Ohio. After a brief foray into computer science, he attended University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, to study biology and medical microbiology. There he had the opportunity to work with Robert B. Helling and Julian Adams. He attended Washington University for grad school, rotating through Daniel A. Portnoy’s, William L. Goldwin’s, and Roy Curtiss III’s laboratories. When Portnoy left for University of Pennsylvania, Camilli followed to complete his doctoral work on the genes for virulence factors in Listeria monocytogenes. After a postdoc, he accepted a position at Tufts University School of Medicine, where he focused his lab on genetic expression in Vibrio cholerae and gene regulation in Streptococcus pneumonia. He discusses his changing roles in the laboratory, teaching responsibilities, management style, and more.
Richard W. Carthew was born in Toronto, Canada. He attended Queen’s University for ecology and worked for Seward R. Brown. His thesis work was laboratory based, resulting in a publication on the thermodynamics of photosynthetic adaptation to photon fluence rate in the cyanophyte. He became a research technician for Jack F. Greenblatt at the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and contributed to work isolating three proteins that bind to RNA polymerase II. He attended Massachusetts of Technology for graduate school, where he develop an interest in neurobiology and decided on a postdoctoral fellowship with Gerald M. Rubin at the University of California, Berkeley. From there he accepted a position at University of Pittsburgh, where he studied ras oncogene, which led to consulting work for the Chiron Corporation.
Michael A. Caudy was born in Columbus, Ohio. When he was in high school, he worked as a technician in the veterinary pathology lab at Ohio State University, and later attended university there. He received a degree in English education and taught elementary and junior high school for a number of years while maintaining an interest in science, leading him to enter the biophysics graduate program at Ohio State. After a year, he transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, to David Bentley’s lab, to study theoretical biophysics and neurobiology. He then accepted a position at Weill Cornell Medical College, where he works today, researching mammalian and Drosophila genetics. He discusses the college’s atmosphere, pressures on medical schools, his research agenda, and his lab.
Andrew C. Chan was born in Hong Kong, but his family emigrated to the United States when he was young. Encouraged by two teachers, he attended Northwestern University, entering with sophomore standing at age sixteen. He attributes his interest in research to his professor, Joseph Lambert, but also wanted to be a doctor, so he applied to the M.D./Ph.D. program at Washington University School of Medicine, where he did research on protein processing in John Atkinson’s laboratory. After finishing his fellowship he moved up the ranks to attending physician at University of California, San Francisco. Today he is principal investigator at Washington University School of Medicine and attending physician at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Chan discusses parental expectations, teaching, lab management, research, and more.
Maureen J. Charron was the first in her family to go to college (she attended Queens College in New York City), first wanting to be a doctor, but soon finding she liked research better. She joined the lab of Corinne Michels, where she worked on maltose fermentation genes of yeast for beer; eventually she developed this into her diabetes research. Next, she took a postdoc at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, where she worked with Harvey Lodish, studying glucose transporters. She is now a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, an institution she chose based on its founding commitment not to discriminate against women, its diabetes lab, and location. She discusses difficulties women have in science, tenure, grant writing, competition and collaboration, and more.
Cheng-Ming Chiang was born and raised in Taiwan. For undergrad, he joined what he considered the best department at National Taiwan University, Agricultural Chemistry. There, he learned biochemical and cell biological techniques in labs, including column chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and mammalian cell culture. After his military service, he spent one year as a lab technician studying human papillomavirus. When he matriculated at University of Rochester, he continued this research, specifically performing molecular biology mapping through RNA splicing of variants by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer in human papillomavirus type 11. His thesis won the best thesis award for the entire medical school. He is now at Case Western Reserve University, researching the biochemical aspects of human papillomavirus gene regulation.
Ken W.Y. Cho was born in Seoul, South Korea, but moved to Japan when he was five years old. His Korean heritage limited his career options, so he attended university in the US, receiving his B.A. in Chemistry from Grinnell College. Cho was forced to rapidly assimilate a new language and culture, spending entire nights just completing reading assignments. While completing his Ph.D. at the University of Pennsylvania, he conducted research in Roberto Weinmann’s lab at the Wistar Institute. During a postdoc at University of California, Los Angeles, Cho became interested in homeobox genes and their role in the development of embryos. Now a faculty member at University of California, Irvine, he researches the regulation of homeobox and goosecoid genes in the context of embryological development in vertebrates.
Lynn Cooley grew up in Portland, Connecticut, where her parents were scientists. She studied zoology at Connecticut College, then attended the University of Texas, where she studied biochemistry and worked in Kwan Wang’s lab. After finishing her master’s degree, she became a lab technician for Joanne Ravel, then transferred to Dieter Söll’s lab at Yale University. He suggested she complete her Ph.D. at the University of Texas while working in his lab. After finishing her degree, Cooley accepted a postdoc at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, where she began researching the regulation of expression in follicle cells, research she continued at Yale. Cooley discusses scientific issues, the impact of molecular techniques on developmental biology, improving the public’s understanding of research, and trends in funding.
Ann Marie Craig was born in Ithaca, New York. By the time she entered university, she had fallen in love with the beauty and logic of science. She began classes in psychology, interested in how the brain works. She spent two summers working for the National Research Council of Canada. Her work was molecular neurobiology, leading her into cancer research. For her Ph.D., Craig chose David Denhardt’s lab at the University of Western Ontario because she wanted to learn DNA cloning. After two postdocs, her interest shifted, this time to synapses, and she accepted a position at Washington University. Her research interests include molecular mechanisms underlying synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. She hopes in the future to initiate research on central neuron synapse assembly, modulation, and electrophysiology.
Jason G. Cyster was born in Western Australia. In high school, he obtained the highest aggregate score on Australia’s Tertiary exams in his state, receiving the Beazley Award. He decided to study biology based upon his childhood interests in animals and the caliber of lecturers at Western Australia University. By his third year, he became interested in immunology and began working with Wayne R. Thomas. After receiving a Commonwealth Overseas Studentship, Cyster attended Oxford University, where he worked with Alan F. Williams characterizing the CD43 molecule and collaborated with Paul C. Driscoll and Ian Campbell on a structural analysis of the T lymphocyte CD2 antigen. After a postdoc at Stanford, he accepted a position at the University of California, San Francisco, where he is today.
Seth A. Darst grew up near Seattle, Washington. Though he loved music, the difficulties inherent in a musical career persuaded him to go into chemical engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He had never had to study hard before, but he learned fast in college. A required undergraduate class in biochemistry, taught by Larry Gold and Michael Yarus, had introduced him to structural biology. At Stanford for grad school, he worked in Roger Kornberg’s lab on this subject. Near the end of his master’s degree he found electron microscopy and crystallography, his ongoing interests. He remained in Kornberg’s lab until he was offered an assistant professorship at Rockefeller University. Now a tenured professor, he continues his work in prokaryotic transcription.
Robert C. De Lisle was born in Buffalo, New York. He credits his father (an electrical engineer and inventor) with influencing Robert’s interest in science. Having won a National Merit Scholarship, he entered University of Massachusetts, Boston, where he discovered a love of lab work, then went onto Case Western University, where he worked in the Ulrich Hopfer laboratory, researching the pancreas. Next, he accepted a postdoc at the University of California, San Francisco, working with John Williams, whom he followed to the University of Michigan. Eventually De Lisle accepted a position at the University of Kansas Medical Center. He is currently working on two broad projects: what muclin protein does in the exocrine pancreas, and applications to cystic fibrosis.
Stephen M. Denning was born in rural North Carolina, where he loved to read about scientists and grew interested in chemistry and biology. He received a B.S. in chemistry from Duke University. An emeritus professor of chemistry, Marcus Hobbs, convinced him to go into medicine, as there would be more breakthroughs in that field. Denning attended Duke Medical School; there he did research with Sheldon Pinnell on collagen antibodies; and then did his internship and residency at University of Chicago. He then accepted a fellowship in cardiology under Joseph C. Greenfield at Duke University, where he has remained. His greatest interest is in the intersection between his clinical work and his research on molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic or interventional value.
Patrick Dolph was born in Portland, Oregon. As a child, he enjoyed collecting bugs and wanted to be an entomologist. His high school biology teacher emphasized Mendel’s genetics experiments, stirring Dolph’s enthusiasm. He studied biology at Oregon State University and began genetics classes as a sophomore, greatly influenced by Paul Roberts. After working for a time at the Oregon Health Science Center, he got his master’s at Ohio State University, working on the genetics of Erwinia stewartii at Ohio State University. He did his Ph.D. at NYU, then took a postdoc at University of California, San Diego, working on arrestin and the regulation of signal transduction in the Drosophila melanogaster visual system. Next, Dolph accepted a position at Dartmouth, where he researches cell death in photoreceptor cells.
Joseph P. Dougherty attended New York University for his undergraduate degree, where he became interested in genetic manipulations and gene therapy. After working as a lab technician at Mount Sinai Hospital, he undertook his graduate work at Yale University with Peter Lengyel. Dougherty then pursued post-doctoral research with Pierre Chambon in Strasbourg, France and subsequently with Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin. The two very different post-doctoral experiences allowed Dougherty the opportunity to discuss funding and science in different countries and different types of academic institutions. Throughout the interview Dougherty talks openly about issues related to funding and his persistent interest in moving to France, and, additionally, the duty of the scientist to educate people.
Stephen J. Elledge was born in Paris, Illinois. As a child, he played with chemistry kits, made rockets, and joined his high school chemistry team. He studied chemistry at the University of Illinois, the first of his family to attend college, then went to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he worked in Graham Walker’s lab, combining molecular biology and genetics, and becoming interested in cloning. Stanford University offered him a postdoc in Ronald Davis’ lab, where he researched how cyclin-dependent kinases that run the cell cycle were regulated. Elledge accepted an assistant professorship at Baylor College of Medicine, where he still works today. He has brought technological advances to genetics and discovered inhibitor molecules, especially the tumor suppressor p21, the first mammaliam inhibitor.
Andrew D. Ellington credits his love of science and research to many influential high school teachers, many of whom he still speaks with. He attended Michigan State University for biochemistry, where he worked tirelessly in the lab, often sleeping in classrooms or computer labs. In Steven Benner’s lab at Harvard he developed his Palimpsest Theory for Evolution based on his observations of RNA. Ellington accepted a postdoc at Harvard Medical School, studying Type 1 self-splicing introns and performed research on in vitro selection in Jack Szostak’s lab. His current research focuses on aptazymes—allosteric ribosomes that can be engineered to recognize almost any molecule. Ellington hopes to show that these can be used to recognize and subdue the HIV virus population of infected individuals.
Beverly M. Emerson was born in Eugene, Oregon, and attended the University of California, San Diego, where she discovered a love of science. She worked in Donald Helinski’s and Peter Geiduschek’s labs; the latter became her mentor, and she continues to have a professional relationship with him. When she finished her PhD at Washington University in St. Louis, she decided to accept a postdoc in Gary Felsenfeld’s lab at the National Institutes of Health; there she began the transcription research that she has continued ever since. That work has since branched off from Felsendfeld’s area; she is concentrating on -globin and chromatin. Beverly has her own lab now at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences.
Jerry R. Faust grew up in Dallas, Texas, where a school trip to a laboratory confirmed his desire to become a scientist. He attended Stephen F. Austin State University, studying chemistry and biology. After a year as a chemist, he attended graduate school at University of Texas, Arlington. Next, he became a research associate in the Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein lab at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Faust describes Brown's and Goldstein's backgrounds, the lab's work on cholesterol metabolism, and Nobel research. After eleven years he went to E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company as a principal investigator. Faust describes the structure and research resources of the Du Pont Experimental Station and his projects there. Soon, he decided to pursue is Ph.D. at Tufts University, where he still has a lab.
Edwin L. Ferguson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. While attending Massachusetts Institute of Technology, his initial interest in computer science began to wane, and a course in genetics pushed him towards biology. He spent some time working in computer programming, but found it boring, and returned to graduate school at MIT to study biology. He went into H. Robert Horvitz’s lab to work on genetics in C. Elegans. From there he went to Columbia University with a postdoc in Martin Chalfie’s lab, then to University of California, Berkeley and worked in Kathryn Anderson’s lab, studying dorsal-ventral patterning in Drosophila. Next, he took an assistant professorship at the University of Chicago. He continues to work in developmental genetics.
Erol Fikrig was born in Istanbul, Turkey. The family moved to Queens, New York, when Fikrig was a child. Fikrig attended Cornell University, majoring in chemistry. He decided early, influenced by both his father and his college roommate, to go to medical school. He attended Cornell’s Weill School of Medicine. During his third and fourth years he studied in Brazil, where he became interested in vector-borne diseases. Interested in infectious disease and internal medicine, he did his residency at Vanderbilt University. Next, he became a fellow at Yale, where he worked in Richard Flavell’s laboratory. He was offered an assistant professorship in rheumatology at Yale, eventually becoming full professor. Fikrig continues to study Lyme disease and other related diseases.
David E. Fisher grew up in Highland Park, New Jersey. Deciding to pursue a career in medicine, he attended the Curtis Institute of Music and Swarthmore College concurrently. He spent his first college summer in his father’s lab and published his first paper. He also worked in Robert Weinberg’s lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he discovered molecular biology and oncology. Interested in lab work, he received an M.D./Ph.D. at Weill Medical College of Cornell University and Rockefeller University. In Günter Blobel’s laboratory he completed thesis projects on systemic lupus erythematosis and T-cells. He talks about funding, teaching, and minority and women students and faculty at Harvard University. His current research is on apoptosis and on microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf) in melanocytes and osteoclasts.
Manfred Frasch was born in Holzgerlingen, Germany. He had an early curiosity about how things work, leading him to chemistry and biology. He entered the University of Tübingen, where he studied biochemistry. His diploma thesis concerned gene regulation in Drosophila, which he continued to study through his career. Liking the projects and atmosphere of Tübingen, Frasch stayed for his Ph.D. He learned cloning techniques and decided to pursue genetic approaches. Wanting to see more of the world, he took a postdoc in Michael Levine’s lab at Columbia University, working on the even-skipped gene. After a fellowship at the Max Planck Institute, he accepted a position at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, where he established his lab and is now a tenured professor.
Jorge E. Galán was born in a small town near Buenas Aires. After high school he attended the University of La Plata, where he received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and his Doctor of Veterinary Science. He became interested in infectious diseases, particularly in horses, and was accepted to the Ph.D. program at the veterinary school at Cornell University. There he discovered his major interest, Salmonella. He worked for several years in Roy Curtiss’ lab at Washington University in St. Louis before he started his own lab at SUNY Stony Brook. There he discovered Type III protein secretion system. He continues to work most hours of every day in his lab, to teach, and to mentor his graduate students and postdoctoral students.
Mary K. Gall was born in New York City in 1922 and grew up in New Jersey and Rhode Island, falling in love with nature during summers spent in Holderness, New Hampshire. After earning a degree in chemistry from Vassar College, she decided that she did not have enough “drive” for medical school, and that she wanted to be a lab person, not an academic, a view confirmed by jobs she was given in the chemistry lab. Throughout her career, she worked as a chemist for a number of companies, including Hayden Chemicals, McNeil Laboratories, Rohm and Haas, and Mobil Research Laboratories. Gall discusses the changes she has seen in the field, obstacles for women in academia, and her current activities.
Anirvan Ghosh was in born in Bloomington, Indiana, though his family soon moved to Kanpur, India. His parents were both scholars, so Ghosh lived his life in an academic setting. He stayed in the Indian educational system (which he describes in detail) until he matriculated at the California Institute of Technology. Ghosh undertook undergraduate research in the laboratories of Jack Beacham, Thomas Tombrello, and Jerome Pine. He also worked at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, where he had a “defining” moment during a neurobiology course. At Stanford University for graduate school, he studied under Carla J. Shatz researching brain-cell development. Upon finishing his postdoc, Ghosh accepted a position at Johns Hopkins University, though soon decided to move on to University of California, San Diego, where he remains.
Gary H. Gibbons was born in 1956 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His early interest in science came from books, electronics, and investigating his surroundings. He received his B.A. in Biology from Princeton University. After receiving his M.D. from Harvard Medical School, Gibbons took two years off to pursue research in Dr. Clifford Berger’s lab studying the renin-angiotensin system and cardiovascular disease. In 1990 Gibbons became a faculty member in the Stanford University Cardiology Department, where he collaborated with Dr. Victor J. Dzau on investigation of the renin-angiotensin system. His is now the director of the Cardiovascular Research Institute at the Morehouse School of Medicine, where he oversees research aimed at decreasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans in the southern United States.
Peter G. Gillespie was born in Seattle, Washington, where his love of outdoors and some important high school influences pushed him towards science. Gillespie received his B.A. in chemistry from Reed College where, during his fellowship studying photoreceptors at the Neurological Science Institute, he became interested in neuroscience. He worked for two years as a lab technician, then entered the University of Washington for his Ph.D.. Gillespie accepted a postdoctoral position at the University of California, San Francisco in James Hudspeth’s lab only to move with Hudspeth to University of Texas Southwest. Having held positions at Johns Hopkins University and the Oregon Health and Science University, Gillespie now conducts research at the Vollum Institute, where he studies auditory hair cell signal transduction.
David D. Ginty was born in Danbury, Connecticu and studied biology at Mount St. Mary’s. Though the college’s small size limited lab opportunities, Ginty was inspired by his professors’ love of their work. After his senior year, he was offered a job at National Institutes of Health, but a friend’s mother urged him to obtain a Ph.D. At East Carolina University, he found a small program with close relations between faculty and students. Ginty’s interest in the nervous system led him to a postdoc at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, where he worked in John Wagner’s lab on growth factor signal transduction in the neuron. He then accepted a position at Johns Hopkins University, where he is today. He continues to work on nerve growth factor and retrograde signaling.
Benjamin S. Glick was born in Goroka, New Guinea, but spent much of his childhood in New Salem, Massachusetts, where his father was Dean at Hampshire College. In high school, he came to understand what scientists “do,” and was influenced by one teacher who combined moral and scientific lessons. Glick studied neuroscience and mathematics at Amherst College for undergrad. Based on advice from Alan Waggoner, he pursued graduate work in biochemistry at Stanford University, where he worked in James Rothman’a lab on the Golgi apparatus and learned about lab management, the culture of science, and mentoring. After a postdoc at University of Basel, Glick accepted a position at University of Chicago, where he has continued researching Golgi apparatus and pursued projects on the structure of transitional endoplasmic reticula.
Marcia B. Goldberg grew up in Brookline, Massachusetts. She received her B.A. from Harvard University, where she developed an interest in physiology, which encouraged her to attend Harvard Medical School. She traveled extensively, including a service trip to Gabon, and explored many aspects of medicine by working with various non-profits. During her residency, she researched virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae alongside Dr. Stephen B. Calderwood. She then spent several years studying Shigella flexneri pathogenesis in Philippe J Sansonetti’s Lab at the Pasteur Institute. Goldberg became assistant professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, but after a few years moved to Harvard Medical School. Her current research focuses on the IcsA protein of Shigella flexneri and its role in actin assembly during the bacterium’s infection of mammalian host cells.
Paul D. Gollnick was born in Pullman, Washington. Because his father was a scientist, Paul was, from a young age, interested in science, and he spent hours helping in his father’s lab. He attended Washington State University, where he studied biochemistry and worked in Bruce McFadden’s laboratory, producing an enzyme inhibitor. Realizing he needed a graduate degree, he entered Iowa State University. In Jack Horowitz’s lab, Gollnick worked on nucleic acids and tRNA. Next, Gollnick did postdoc work in Charles Yanofsky’s lab. Four years later, with Yanofsky’s permission and with TRAP (trp RNA-attenuation protein) in hand, Gollnick applied for faculty positions. He accepted an assistant professorship at SUNY Buffalo, where he is now an associate professor. Gollnick continues his study of TRAP in B. subtilis.
Daniel E. Gottschling was born in Gary, Indiana, where nearby woods inspired his early interest in science. During his undergraduate years at Augustana College, he majored in chemistry. He attended graduate school at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he helped Thomas Cech set up his lab and worked on ciliate chromosomes, finally focusing on telomeres. After finishing his degree, he accepted a postdoc at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, working on ciliate telomeres in Virginia Zakian’s yeast genetics lab. Gottschling accepted an assistant and then an associate professorship at the University of Chicago, leaving behind his ciliates and moving into yeast and epigenetics. He returned to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center seven years later, where he continues his research on yeast.
Jean T. Greenberg was raised in New York City and attended Barnard College, where time spent working in a biophysics lab piqued her interest in the subject. She decided to study biophysics at Harvard University. There she worked in Bruce Demple’s laboratory defining the genes involved in the control of the adaptive responses to oxidative stress in bacteria. She appreciated the freedom and personal attention she received, as well as the strong support group of other students and professors. She stayed at Harvard for her postdoc, studying disease resistance and symptoms in the plant Arabidopsis. Next, she accepted a position at University of Colorado, Boulder, mapping and characterizing the genes involved in disease resistance, and then at the University at Chicago, where she is today.
Carol W. Greider was born in San Diego, California. Beatrice Sweeney, a family friend, inspired Greider to attend University of California, Santa Barbara, where she studied circadian rhythms, working with a graduate student who studied microtubules in chicken brains. In part because of Elizabeth Blackburn, Greider decided to attend graduate school at University of California, Berkeley. There she became interested in how sequences are added into telomeres. She discovered the telomerase enzyme and determined its nucleic acid component, finding that telomerase is sensitive to RNase and has an RNA component. She then accepted a postdoc at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where she remains. Greider continues work on telomerase, relating it to human aging and cellular senescence and attempting to clone the RNA component of telomerase.
Marnie E. Halpern grew up in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. She was always “a bit of a brain,” moving ahead in school. Halpern attended McMaster University, but did not enjoy school until her last year, when she became interested in molecular biology and decided to do a master’s in James Smiley’s lab. Having become fascinated by Drosophila, she invited Gary Struhl to give a talk at McMaster. She pursued her Ph.D. at Yale, where she joined the Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas lab. Halpern gained recognition in the biology department and joined the Haig Keshishian lab to characterize the neuromuscular system in larval Drosophila. Eventually, Halpern accepted a position at Carnegie Institution of Washington. She talks about her experiences at Carnegie, struggles for women in the sciences, research, publishing, and more.
Yusuf A. Hannun was born in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Hannun attended the International College in Beirut, where he excelled in science and mathematics. He studied medicine at the American University of Beirut, specializing in internal medicine, then took a subspecialty in oncology/hematology at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. He studied the connection between protein kinase C and diacylglycerol with James E. Neidel and Robert M. Bell, after which he received a National Institutes of Health Physician Scientist Award and began his work on sphingolipids and protein kinase C. Much of the interview is spent discussing the cultural, social, and political life of Lebanon, the civil war, and Hannun’s comparison of life in the United States to life in Lebanon.
Thomas S. Hays was born in Winter Haven, Florida and attended the University of North Carolina. After graduation he spent three years as a technician in Bruce Niklas’s lab at Duke University, where he became fascinated by mitosis. He was accepted into the PhD program at the University of North Carolina to work in Edward Salmon’s lab, where he researched spindle poles and micotubules. He spent summers with Salmon at Woods Hole Marine Biology Laboratory. Soon, he decided to switch to genetics and took a postdoc with Margaret Fuller at the University of Colorado. He then accepted a job at the University of Minnesota. Now tenured, Hays continues to publish, write grants, teach, and ponder the place of science in society.
Tatsuya Hirano was born in Chiba, Japan. He entered Kyoto University intending to study physics, but became interested in molecular biology. He was unaffected by his professors, finding undergraduate education self-directed, not instructor-led. As is common in Japan, Hirano remained at Kyoto for graduate school, working in Mitsuhiro Yanagida’s laboratory on the genetics of chromosome structure in fission yeast. Knowing options were limited at home, Hirano went abroad for his postdoc. He chose to study with Timothy J. Mitchison—someone Hirano considered one of the brightest cell biologists of his age—at University of California, San Francisco, working on chromosome condensation and the condensin complex. From there, he accepted a position at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he continued his research on condensin and cohesion.
Yasushi Hiromi was born in Kaizuka City, Japan. At the University of Tokyo he worked on Drosophila genetics in Yoshiki Hotta’s lab and decided to study biology. He continued in Hotta’s lab for graduate school. There he met Walter Gehring, later taking a postdoc in his lab. He discovered the ftz gene, leading to an interest in the central nervous system. He accepted a second postdoc in Corey Goodman’s lab at Stanford and then UC Berkeley, where he worked with Chris Doe on the seven-up gene, which he took with him when he joined the faculty at Princeton University. Now, he looks forward to returning to Japan, where there is less emphasis on grant-writing, and he can exploit the joy he feels in solving problems.
Nancy M. Hollingsworth was born in San Francisco, California and attended Oregon State University. She began working in Peter Dawson’s lab very early in her undergraduate career, doing crosses and measuring map distances between genes in Tribolium. A summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts helped her decide to attend the University of Washington for doctoral studies. There, she worked in the lab of Breck E. Byers, ultimately developing a mutant screen for yeast recombination proteins and subsequently identifying the HOP1 mutant. After several postdocs, she accepted a position at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, researching the recombinant promoter gene MSH5 in yeast and the roles of the Mms4/Mus81complex and of Mek1 in recombination.
Christine E. Holt was born in Wylam, England. She attended the University of Sussex, where she worked with John Maynard Smith and Michael F. Land, who encouraged her to undertake graduate studies. She received a Science Research Council fellowship and worked with John H. Scholes at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Cell Biophysics Unit, unifying her interests in genetics and neurobiology. William A. Harris introduced her to using an electrophysiological mapping system with Xenopus, after which she decided to undertake her postdoctoral studies with him at the University of California, San Diego. Her research focused on disproving the mechanospatial theory of brain development and contributing to the reaffirmation of Roger W. Sperry’s chemoaffinity theory. She eventually earned a professorship at UCSD, where she remains.
Jeffrey T. Holt was born and raised in Battle Creek, Michigan. He attended Kalamazoo College in Michigan, intending to pursue both music and premed majors, though he ultimately gave up music. After completing medical school he went on to his residency at the Strong Memorial Hospital at the University of Rochester, before beginning postdoctoral work in the Arthur W. Nienhuis lab at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. He went on to a faculty position in the Departments of Cell Biology and of Pathology at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Holt talks about the ways medical practice differs from research, applying insights in pathology to cancer research, and the difficulties in applying molecular biology cancer research in practice.
Jonathan M. Horowitz was born in Brooklyn, New York. By high school he had decided become a researcher in molecular biology, like Francis Crick. He attended a high school with no grades; he even designed his own courses. Hearing about its unstructured curriculum, he attended Brown University, but struggled to do well. For graduate school, Horowitz attended the University of Wisconsin, where he worked in Rex Risser’s lab on mouse retroviruses. Shifting to oncogenes, he next joined Robert Weinberg’s lab at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. In collaboration with Edward Harlow, Horowitz discovered Rb is an E1A-binding protein and mapped the E1A- binding region on Rb. He is now at North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine, where he finds much support for his research.
Jonathon Howard was born in Sydney, Australia. Howard disliked school intensely—except for mathematics—often playing truant, until he transferred to International School, where he throve under the direction of William Eason. Howard went to Australian National University, obtaining his BSc in mathematics in 1979, then switched to physics and neurobiology for his PhD, which he received from Australian National University in 1983. He first took a postdoc at the University of Bristol in England, but soon moved to the University of California at San Francisco, where he worked in Albert James Hudspeth’s lab. Howard became interested in vision and hearing, studying first photoreceptors and hair cells. He accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Washington, where he remains today.
Shi Huang was born in Dalian, China, during the Cultural Revolution. He remembers school being easy, and focused on memorizing political tracts, marching, and working in the fields. He went to Shanghai for college, where he studied genetic engineering and was selected to participate in the China-U.S. Biochemistry Examination and Application program, a joint program between China and American professors. Huang studied English at the Guangzhou English Language Center, then joined John W.B. Hershey’s laboratory at University of California, Davis; there he used a gel electrophoresis assay to study RNA protein interactions. After a postdoc at University of California, San Diego joined the Burnham Institute in La Jolla, California, where he continues his work on RIZ as a tumor suppressor gene.
James R. Von Ehr became interested in electronics when he was given vacuum tubes, a homemade Heathkit ham radio, and electronics magazines as a child. While studying computer science at Michigan State University, he helped hack into MSU’s computer system with a group that named themselves the “alternative systems programming group.” Von Ehr was caught, but memorialized the experience in the name of his first company, “Altsys Corporation.” After college, he first worked for Texas Instruments, then started his own company, and developed games, utilities, fonts, and other programs for Macintosh. Later in his career, he became fascinated by nanotechnology, eventually founding the Texas Nanotechnology Initiative. Von Ehr meditates on the interface between computers and nano, the inevitability of progress, and the value of competition.
Theodore S. Jardetzky was raised in Boston, Massachusetts. Both of his parents were scientists, his father later a faculty member at Stanford. In addition to music, he also had a longtime interest in mathematics and science, and had influential teachers in chemistry and biology. Jaredtsky matriculated at Stanford University in order to explore both science and the humanities. He worked in his father’s lab, researched the structure of the acetylcholine receptor, and met Kasper Kirschner, with whom Jardetsky decided to work at University of Basel, Switzerland, for his graduate studies. There, Jardetsky looked at the kinetics and equilibrium binding of enzyme reactions. He is now at Northwestern University, where he researches structure of membrane proteins, properties of protein structure, and organization of cellular structures.
As a child in Alabama, Jennie Patrick had no real science experience, but she always wanted to know how and why things worked, and by junior high she decided she wanted to be a chemist. When studying chemical engineering at UC Berkeley, she was the only African-American woman in her department. She excelled and attended MIT for her ScD. There she found more black students and professors, including John Turner, who was a dean of students, and less hostility. During her career, she worked for General Electric, Rohm and Haas, Southern Company Services, and Raytheon. While a 3M Eminent Scholar at Tuskegee University, she developed a mentoring program for girls in science. She also discusses her childhood mentors and advice for aspiring chemical engineers.
David J. Julius was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. He was interested early in the sciences, although he did not particularly enjoy school. He attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received his BS in 1977. He then obtained his PhD from University of California at Berkeley in 1984. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Cancer Research at Columbia University, then an associate at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 1989 he became assistant professor at the University of California, San Francisco, where he remains. Julius’s major areas of interest include yeast genetics, the secretory pathway, Xenopus and Aplysia, neurobiology, electrophysiology, mouse genetics, and the serotonin receptor.
Mark P. Kamps grew up in New Jersey, where religion was important to family life, which taught him that science and religion can coexist. Interested in both chemistry and biology, he double-majored at Calvin College. At University of California, San Diego, he became interested in Bartholomew Sefton’s work in avian retroviruses and worked in his lab. Kamps talks about his love of bench work, his relationship with Sefton, the need for students to design experiments, and ethics in science. Kamps accepted a postdoc in David Baltimore’s lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then took a position at UCSD. He discusses his discovery of E2A-Pbx1, and how it furthered his career, funding, ideal research environments, gender issues, students in the lab, and the importance of advancing science literacy.
Joshua M. Kaplan was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He grew up in an academic family, and in high school began his first research experience with his father, studying in vitro red blood cell development. Kaplan studied biochemistry at Yale University, working in Charles A. Janeway’s lab. At the University of California, San Francisco, he researched cancer-associated src protein with J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, and earned his Ph.D. After a postdoc at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an environment he found difficult but instructive, and a brief stay at Harvard, Kaplan became assistant professor at University of California, Berkeley. His current research focuses on mapping signal transduction in the simple nervous system of C. elegans, in an effort to understand the workings of more complex nervous systems.
Roger E. Karess cannot remember not being interested in science. He attended Yale University and Rockefeller University. After working in various research labs, Karess accepted a position as a principal investigator at the Centre de Génétique Moléculaire (CGM). He describes funding in France; the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and setting up a lab at CNRS; and his own funding. He later accepted positions in the Gerald Rubin lab at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, then a position in David Glover’s lab at Imperial College of Science and Technology. Karess then applied for his first academic position at New York University, where he studied Leishmania. Karess moved his lab to the CGM in Paris, where he has been studying the rough-deal gene.
Gary Karpen was born in New York City. In junior high Karpen had an excellent biology teacher who fired his interest in that subject. Because Brandeis was strong in pre-med, he decided to apply for early acceptance. Soon, he decided to become a researcher, inspired by his childhood love of “tinkering” and solving puzzles. He next spent three years as a technician in Gerold Schubiger’s lab at the University of Washington before crossing the bridge to the genetics department for graduate school. There, he worked in Larry Sandler’s and Charles Laird’s labs, transforming ribosomal genes into flies. After his postdoc at the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Karpen joined the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, where he has his own lab and teaches the occasional course.
Margaret C. Kielian became interested in science at an early age while growing up in Omaha, Nebraska. She studied microbiology at the University of Nebraska. She considered Stanford and Rockefeller Universities for graduate school and was encouraged to attend Rockefeller, where she studied fusion of phagocytic vacuoles with lysosomes in the lab of Zanvil A. Cohn lab. She became increasingly interested in molecular biology. After a stint as a visiting scientist working on Semliki Forest virus at the University of Helsinki, she continued her postdoc position at Yale University. Kielian's research focus shifted to conformational changes in the spike protein. She isolated the mutant virus fus-1, which turned out to be a useful pH probe for work on endocytosis. Vigorously recruited by Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Kielian set up her lab there with funding from National Institutes of Health, American Cancer Society, and Pew Foundation. Kielian discusses her lab’s work on fusion in the SFV spike protein; the role of cholesterol in SFV infection; and the representation of women on the Einstein faculty.
Peter S. Kim was born in Atlanta, Georgia, but moved to Massachusetts, Brooklyn, and New Jersey as a child. He studied chemistry at Cornell, then went to Stanford for his Ph.D., where he worked in Robert “Buzz” Baldwin’s lab on nuclear magnetic resonance. Another interest he developed was in catalytic antibodies. He won the third Whitehead fellowship granted. In his lab at the Whitehead he developed a peptide model of a protein-folding intermediate and worked on Leucine zippers and coiled coils with his postdocs and assistants. There, he was promoted first to assistant and then to associate member. Kim also became a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an associate investigator at the Howard Hughes; he remains in all three positions today.
Jane E. Koehler was born in Lincoln, Nebraska and graduated from Vassar College, Though she had first intended to pursue a Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkley, she soon decided to earn a master’s degree instead and pursue a medical education. She attended George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, where she received an M.D. in 1984. After a postdoc there, Koehler began working at the University of California, San Francisco, as a Clinical Instructor of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases Department. She rose through the ranks to Associate Professor of Medicine in Residence in the Infectious Diseases Department. Her current research focuses on tracing the complex life cycle of Bartonella and its role in the frequent infection of immunocompromised patients.
Andrew Koff was born and in New York and attended State University of New York, Stony Brook for political science. He worked as a technician in Peter Tegtmeyer’s lab on SV40 large T-antigen. He decided to remain at Stony Brook for his graduate studies, then took a postdoc in James M. Roberts’s laboratory at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, studying cyclin E. He also collaborated with Joan Massague on cyclin E-CDK2 activity. Koff then accepted a position at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, where he focuses on p27 interactions and regulation, developing mouse models mimicking p27 activity, cyclins in meiosis, and angiogenesis. He discusses grant writing, peer review, the importance of understanding the history of one’s field, pressures of publication, and more.
Adrian R. Krainer was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. Political unrest, anti-Semitism, and Zionism framed his teenage years. He attended Columbia University to study biochemistry, finding courses with James A. Lewis and Charles R. Cantor, and research with Catherine L. Squires quite stimulating. While at Harvard for graduate school, Krainer worked with Thomas P. Maniatis, developing a system for cell-free RNA splicing, which enabled them to elucidate the mechanisms of human pre-mRNA splicing. He took an independent fellow position at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, mentored by Richard J. Roberts, and began to characterize snRNP and protein components of the splicing machinery, before accepting a faculty position there in 1989.
Athan Kuliopulos was raised in North Reading, Massachusetts. He worked as a science-assistant while in junior high, and in high school, his biology teacher encouraged him to pursue independent biological research—Kuliopolos chose to study bacterial growth and natural products that inhibit such growth. He matriculated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he had his first publication with Charles W. Boylen. He then began work in James Coward’s laboratory, studying enzyme kinetics. Next, he joined the MD/PhD program at Johns Hopkins University, where he undertook doctoral research on ketosteroid isomerase in Albert S. Mildvan and Paul Talalay’s laboratories. At Tufts University-New England Medical Center, where he is today, he has focused his research on protease activated receptors and pepducins involved in blood coagulation and cell signaling.
Samuel M. Kunes was born in Trenton, New Jersey. He was uninterested in school as a child, but a decision to drive across the country after high school graduation brought him to the town of Corvallis, Oregon, where he began to realize his academic potential. Kunes earned his B.S. at University of Oregon, where he discovered his interest in science and did research at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Next, he attended graduate school at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he became interested in genetics. He took a postdoc in Hermann Stellar's lab at MIT, studying the nervous system development of Drosophila. Kunes is now a faculty member at Harvard. His research focuses on tracing the steps and control of axonal development in fruit flies.
Frank A. Laski was born in Detroit, Michigan. He attended the University of Michigan, where he obtained a BS in general studies and worked in Ethel Noland Jackson’s lab, becomin interested in recombinant DNA. Laski entered Massachusetts Institute of Technology for his Ph.D, where he worked in Phillip A. Sharp’s lab. He took a postdoc in Gerald M. Rubin’s lab at the University of California at Berkeley, working on the relationship between P elements and germline tissue. He then accepted an assistant professorship at the Department of Biology and at the Molecular Biology Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles, where he remains today. His work encompasses bacteriophage packaging; transfer RNA; Drosophila ovaries; P elements; oogenesis; and genetic mutations in Drosophila.
Lester F. Lau lived in Hong Kong until he was fourteen. When the family moved to Brooklyn, Lau did well in academics. He attended the City College of New York, then studied molecular biology at Cornell University. He describes manipulating synthetic DNA to study transcription and termination. Lau worked at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago, then the University of Illinois College of Medicine, where he is now an associate professor. Lau talks about whether outsiders can still make contributions to science, and the status of women and minorities in science. He concludes by talking about his National Institutes of Health grant reviews and his plans to explore a genetics approach to isolating immediate-early genes.
Yuri A. Lazebnik was born in Severomorsk, Russia. His family did not have much growing up, so Lazebnik worked through high school and college to support himself and his mother. He was an avid reader, enjoying the works of Jules Verne. As a teenager Barry Commoner’s The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology made Lazebnik consider environmental science as a career. He studied biology and biochemistry as an undergraduate at St. Petersburg State University, continuing his education as a graduate student in Valerei Vasiliev’s lab, where he studied cell cycle. While he was in France as a visiting scientist, the August Putsch of 1991 occurred in Moscow, spurring Lazebnik’s decision to move to the United States. Lazebnik joined the Earnshaw laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. He is now at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
John M. Leong was born in Berkeley, California. His parents expected him to attend an Ivy League school and become a doctor. He entered the Program in Liberal Medical Education at Brown University, which grants a BS and an MD, but a molecular biology class inspired him to become a research scientist and work toward a PhD as well as an MD. He entered Arthur Landy’s lab, where he began working on φ80. John accepted a postdoc at Tufts University, where he worked on the inv gene of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, then on Lyme spirochete. He has experienced a hostile political climate surrounding the study of Lyme, and thinks he will add enterohemorrhagic E. coli to his research interests. He laughingly points out that there is more grant money in E. coli, too. Leong is now at the University of Massachusetts.
David E. Levy grew up in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He was always interested in science; he had chemistry kits, built rockets, made his own chemicals for his dark room, and observed animals. He attended the University of Tennssee, studying biology, and took a job at the Laboratory in the Molecular Anatomy Program after graduation. He then worked for a year in immunologist Alan Solomon’s lab at the University of Tennessee’s Memorial Research Center. Excited by the confluence of chemistry and biology, he decided to become a scientist. He was accepted at CalTech and began researching immunology, then switched to Richard Lerner’s lab at Scripps Research Institute, where he studied retroviruses. Next, he accepted a postdoc at Rockefeller University, where he remains an adjunct faculty member.
Judy Lieberman was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Until about tenth grade Judy wanted to be a historian, but an excellent biology teacher and a summer science program at Cornell turned her to science. Judy studied physics at Harvard University, then pursued a PhD in physics at Rockefeller University, where she studied with Bram Pais. But after a few positions in physics labs, Judy realized she was unhappy and decided to become a doctor. She obtained her MD from a joint program at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Judy has decided to devote her skills to research, specifically immunology. She continues to seek an immunotherapy for AIDS and other diseases, believing an AIDS therapy can be found, if not a cure.
James R. Lupski was born on Long Island, New York, and as a child developed Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), which required several surgeries that kept him at home for much of high school. Based on his experiences, he decided to become a doctor. He won a scholarship to New York University (NYU) to study chemistry and biology. In David Schuster’s laboratory he tried to isolate brain receptors; during summers he worked at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, learning to clone genes. After receiving an MD/PhD from NYU, he was given a faculty appointment at Baylor University, where he set up his own lab and began his research into the genetics of CMT. Lupski eventually patented a diagnostic test for CMT and continues his research on the disease.
Paul M. Macdonald was born in Denver, Colorado. Uninterested in school and preferring outdoor sports, attended Colorado State University’s forestry school, but remained undirected until a class with Larry Hopwood in radiation biology. He loved the class and worked in the lab. Because of his excellent GRE scores and his lab work he was able to attend graduate school at Georgia Tech, where he worked on bacteriophage mutant. After finishing his Ph.D. at Vanderbilt and postdocs at Harvard and Columbia, he took a faculty position at Stanford University. His work included studying how molecules that control patterning are localized, comparing RNA sequences from different Drosophila species, redundancy of information in Drosophila RNA, and the role of chance in his mRNA oskar research.
Carolyn E. Machamer was born near Detroit, Michigan, and showed early interest in biology. She attended Bucknell University, taking all the science courses on offer, working on acrosomes in Sally Nyquist’s lab. Machamer took a fellowship at Duke University and began work on SSPE virus. She worked in Peter Cresswell’s lab, where she finished her thesis research on major histocompatibility complex antigens. She then took a postdoc at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where she worked in John K. Rose’s lab, studying M glycoprotein and RNA viruses. Improved technology allowed a breakthrough in her coronavirus research, which she published after moving to Yale University, where she stayed for about a year. Machamer then joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, where she remains today.
Roderick MacKinnon was born in Melrose, Massachusetts. While at University of Massachusetts, Boston, science came easily, so he continued his undergraduate work in biochemistry at Brandeis University. Unsure what he wanted to do after college, MacKinnon entered Tufts University medical school, though he quickly realized he did not want to practice medicine. He explains how his childhood interest in understanding natural systems, problem-solving, and mathematics led to this decision. He spent time working in Christopher Miller’s lab, then accepted a position at Harvard Medical School, where he applied a structural biology approach to the study of ion channels. MacKinnon talks about his teaching and research responsibilities at Rockefeller University, where he now works, recent molecular genetics work, ion channel structure research, collaborative work, and more.
Alfred T. Malouf has always been curious about how things worked. At the University of California, San Diego, he took a class in pharmacology with Morton Printz and spent two years in Printz’s lab. He then studied neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University and entered Joseph Coyle’s lab to work on kainic acid. Still fascinated by how things work, he accepted a postdoc with Floyd Bloom at Scripps Research Institute, where he learned physiology and electrophysiology. Next, he accepted a fellowship in Philip Schwartzkroin’s lab at the University of Washington, studying the physiology of the hippocampus. Malouf now has his lab at Case Western Reserve University. He finds basic science exciting, but he also loves to see clinical relevance; he tries to balance intellectual pursuit with societal goals.
William W. Mattox was born in South Bend, Indiana and attended Michigan State University, where he worked in Drosophila and RNA processing labs; his ideas of science and of himself evolved from being around others in science, reading, and coursework. At the California Institute of Technology, he worked in Norman Davidson’s lab on heldup-A gene. He became interested in sex determination when heard a talk by Bruce Baker, who explained that temperature differences sometimes determine sex in a number of animals. As a result, he took a postdoc in Baker’s lab at Stanford University. Now at MD Anderson Cancer Center, he teaches experimental genetics, sits on student committees, and attempts to keep up with the explosion of scientific knowledge now so much more easily available.
Timothy J. McDonnell was always fascinated with the natural world. He left high school early without graduating and attended the United States International University, where he studied biology, transferring to University of California, San Diego. McDonnell attended graduate school at the University of North Dakota for his Ph.D. and M.D., where he taught anatomy and worked in the John O. Oberpriller laboratory; his research on cardiac muscle demonstrated that differentiated cells are not necessarily postmitotic. Wanting to combine research with practice, he accepted a postdoc in the Stanley Korsmeyer lab, searching for cancer-causing genes in mice. Next, McDonnell accepted an appointment at the University of Texas. McDonnell discusses learning molecular biology techniques, programmed cell death, growth rate of cancer cells, and mice as models of human disease.
Markus D. Meister was born in Siegsdorf, Germany. When he was seven, the family moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Markus remembers visiting his father at work and walking through a particle accelerator tunnel. He attended the University of Munich, but not feeling challenged, chose to attend the California Institute of Technology for his PhD, and was recruited into Edward Stone’s cosmic-ray lab. During this time, Meister attended a colloquium given by Howard C. Berg about flagellar motion, a talk that pushed Markus in the direction of biology. He spent a summer in Berg’s lab and was given permission to write his PhD thesis for Berg. As a postdoc in Dennis Baylor's lab at Stanford, Meister developed an interest in neuroscience and human visual perception. He accepted an assistant professorship at Harvard Medical School, where he now has tenure.
Earl K. Miller was born near Cleveland, Ohio and attended Kent State University, originally for biology. After taking advice to get research experience, he worked in Richard M. Vardaris’s psychology lab. Once he started doing experiments and collecting neurophysiology data, he “fell in love” with research; Miller switched his major to psychology so Vardaris could be his advisor. He attended Princeton University for graduate studies, working in the laboratory of Charles G. Gross, studying the visual cortex. Next, Miller undertook postdoctoral work with Robert Desimone at the National Institutes of Health, transitioning from studying vision to studying the cognitive operations that operate on sensory information. He is now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has focused his lab on cognitive neuroscience and executive brain control.
Jeffery F. Miller grew up in Toledo, Ohio. As a child, he used his father’s microscope to study bacteria and became interested in medicine. He attended Case Western Reserve University, where he studied biology and chemistry. Influenced by “almost larger than life” Moselio Schaechter, Miller attended Tufts University School of Medicine. One of his rotations was with Michael Malamy, whom Miller calls the most rigorous scientist he has ever met. After a time at Stanford, Miller accepted an assistant professorship at University of California, Los Angeles, where he has developed Listeria monocytogenes as a bacterial probe and has been experimenting with viral vaccines. He discusses testing the lab's vaccines in humans, his competitors, innovative experimentation, and his study of bacterial pathogens' interaction with the immune system.
Ronald A. Milligan grew up near Londonderry, Northern Ireland, becoming the first in his family to attend university. He had been interested in biology since childhood, and chose to study botany and bacteriology at the University of Leeds. After graduating, Milligan became a research assistant at the Nuffield Institute of Comparative Medicine at the London Zoo, then at the Medical Research Council, going to work on nuclear pore complex (NPC) in Nigel Unwin’s lab. When Unwin was recruited to Stanford, Milligan followed. He spent three months in Germany, studying cryo-electron microscopy; his results allowed him to acquire independence as a researcher. Milligan talks about his NPC research, grantsmanship, and “safe science,” lab research, personnel, computers, and his work at Scripps Research Institute.
Carlos T. Moraes grew up in São Paulo, Brazil. When pursuing his mater’s degree, he explored several career options, including a course at the Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas Fundacion Campomar, where he worked under Armando J. Parodi. He eventually enrolled in a doctoral program at Columbia University, where he worked in the Eric A. Schon lab. He accepted a position at University of Miami to study mitochondrial diseases; he also has devised some related projects and possible applications of his DNA mutation studies. He discusses the advantages and disadvantages of being a principal investigator, competition and collaboration in science, thoughts about ethical issues, concerns about overpopulation, differences between American and Brazilian students, and thoughts about the use of animals in scientific research.
William A. Muller was born in Manhattan, and as a child wanted to “cure death” by studying medicine. He describes his undergraduate curriculum at Harvard and his experience purifying DNA under lab director Lynn C. Klotz. Feeling that clinical and research work should complement each other, Muller attended Rockefeller University-Cornell University Medical College M.D./Ph.D. program. He talks about his clinical training, his residency, and the practical nature of medical education. He studied endothelial cells in the Michael A. Gimbrone Jr. lab. His experimental methods included testing the validity of the data on slaughterhouse aortas. Although he was anxious at first about returning to his first graduate-school lab, Muller accepted a position at Rockefeller University. He now studies proteins that mediate monocyte binding and transmigration.
Robert D. Nicholls was born in a small town near Melbourne, Australia. H wanted to study science, particularly biology, and he chose the University of Melbourne. During his first three years he worked on programmed experiments; in his fourth year, he worked in Barrie Davidson’s lab on tyrosine amino acid biosynthesis in E. coli. Nicholls won the Royal Commission fellowship to work with David Weatherall. He went to work in Douglas Higgs’ lab to study genetic disease involving brain function. Finally settling on the genetics of retardation, in particular Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, he chose Harvard as the best place to continue. He found Harvard aggressively competitive, and finally settled at Case Western University as an associate professor in genetics.
Bruce J. Nicholson was born in Queensland, Australia, where he focused on science through school, though he also enjoyed participating in school plays and debate. After receiving his bachelor’s from the University of Queensland, he had his first independent research experience in John Mansbridge’s laboratory; he went on to be mentored by Burt Zerner, an enzymologist, and Robert L. Blakely, completing an honors thesis on inhibition kinetics in jack bean urease. He studied neurobiology at Caltech, and remained there for his postdoctoral studies. He then earned a faculty position at the State University of New York, Buffalo, where he worked with Daniel B. Gros on gap junction proteins. He discusses his research, his experience as a Pew scholar, and his family.
Janko Nikolić-Žugić was born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. As a child, he found molecular biology fascinating, and decided to specialize in natural sciences for secondary school. Nikolić-Žugić realized there were no careers for molecular biologists in Yugoslavia, so decided to become a physician. He entered Belgrade University Medical School, where Miodrag L. Lukić and Marija Mostarica-Stojković encouraged him to work in the United States. Nikolić-Žugić spent summers working with Henry H. Wortis at Tufts University, which influenced his decision to leave clinical medicine and pursue a career in the United States. After finishing his doctoral degree in Yugoslavia, he took a postdoc in Michael J. Bevan’s lab at the University of California, San Diego, studying intrathymic T cells, then accepted a position at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Hans C. Oettgen was born in Germany, but raised in Connecticut. As a child, he spent time in his father’s lab and came to understand research when he helped with the isolation of a particular protein from peanuts, which is expressed on some cancer malignancies. He attended Williams College, then went to Harvard Medical School; during one summer, he worked on B lymphocytes with Cornelius P. Terhorst at the Dana-Farber Cancer Center. He moved into the MD/PhD program and continued to work with Terhorst, writing his thesis on biochemical characterization of T-cell-receptor structure. As a postdoc with Philip Leder, he developed a mouse without the gene for immunoglobulin E (IgE). He is now at Children’s Hospital in Boston, researching the role of IgE in immune function.
Marjorie A. Oettinger grew up in Boston, Massachusetts and studied biology at Harvard. She worked in the Kevin Struhl lab as an undergraduate, where she enjoyed lab work and trained other students. Next, Oettinger entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s graduate program in the health sciences and technology. While working in David Baltimore’s lab, she collaborated with David G. Schatz on the recombination of V(D)J in fibroblasts and discovered that RAG-1 and RAG-2 synergistically activate V(D)J recombination. Oettinger now works at Harvard. She discusses her varied lab experiences and explains that her criteria for choosing research projects must include factors like fundability and probability of publications not just interest to her. For this reason she feels that private grants like the Pew Scholars are wonderful.
Bradley B. Olwin was born in St. Paul, Minnesota and grew up on Los Alamos, New Mexico. There his father was an engineer who worked on nuclear testing sites. Olwin studied chemistry at the University of California at San Diego, where he worked in Stuart Brody’s and Susan Taylor’s lab. Olwin then attended the University of Washington, studying pharmacology. Working in Daniel R. Storm’s labs, he used anisotropy to study calmodulin-binding interactions. Olwin accepted a postdoc at University of California, San Francisco in Zach Hall’s lab, then at Stephen Hauschka’s lab at University of Washington, where he stayed for three years. From there he accepted a professorship at Purdue, where he remains today. Olwin continues to work on the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on cell differentiation and regulation, cell de-differentiation, and signaling.
Thomas L. Ortel grew up in on a farm in Indiana. Weekly allergy shots and chicken butchering influenced his early interest in biology. Ortel attended Indiana University for microbiology and chemistry. He enrolled in the M.D./Ph.D. program at IU, where he entered the Frank W. Putnam lab to study protein chemistry. Ortel next studied hematology/oncologyat Duke University Medical Center; he liked the camaraderie and the focus on connections between research and clinical practice. While an intern and resident he performed an eye-opening rotation in infectious disease in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He stayed at Duke for a fellowship and soon joined the faculty. He discusses funding, writing, teaching and administrative responsibilities, ethnic and gender makeup of his lab and fellow faculty, lab management, and clinical versus research work.
Eric G. Pamer was born in Los Angeles, but went to school in Europe and Cleveland, Ohio. Pamer attended Case Western Reserve University, where he obtained his BA in biology, initially studying hydra in Georgia Lesh’s lab and working summers at the Cleveland Clinic. When he entered medical school he worked in Adel Mahmoud’s lab, working on immune defense against schistosomiasis. During his fourth year he spent three months working in a Kenyan hospital. He obtained training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at UCSD Medical Center and completed fellowships in parasitology and cellular immunology at Scripps Research Institute and the University of Washington. In 1992, Pamer became an assistant professor at Yale and in 2000 he moved to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to lead the infectious disease service.
Diane M. Papazian spent her early years in Detroit, where she exhibited an early interest in science. While studying chemistry at the University of Michigan, her organic chemistry class had students identify compounds without using modern methods, which Papazian found enthralling. Papazian entered graduate school at Harvard University, where she discovered neurobiology. She worked in Stanley M. Goldin’s lab, reconstituting and purifying calcium transporting ATPases. Papazian accepted a postdoc at the Lily Y. and Yuh Nung Jan lab at the University of California, San Francisco, where she worked on cloning the Shaker gene. Next, she accepted a position at University of California, Los Angeles, and organized her lab there. She discusses her belief that neurobiology must be interdisciplinary, funding disparities, UCLA’s atmosphere, and more.
Susan M. Parkhurst was born in Tacoma, Washington. She matriculated at Johns Hopkins University, where she profited from an inspirational developmental biology class and a friendship with a graduate student, Suki Parks. She continued at Hopkins for graduate school, where she joined Victor G. Corces’ lab. Next, Parkhurst undertook a postdoc in the David Ish-Horowicz lab at Oxford University. Her work on hairy-wing led to the discovery of how to count chromosomes for sex determination and the transduction of sex-determining signals by helix-loop-helix proteins. She is now a principal investigator at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. She discusses encouraging women and minorities in science, relationships between research institutions and pharmaceutical companies, gene patents, and her excitement about doing science.
Gregory S. Payne was born in San Francisco and raised in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He attended the University of Michigan, where he initially studied theater, but a job at a lab to make money, starting as a dishwasher, but later assisting in preparations for research. He changed his major from theater to biology and decided to go to graduate school. He attended the University of California, San Francisco, then went on to a postdoctoral position with Randy Schekman at the University of California, Berkeley. He took a reverse genetics approach, used antibodies to identify clathrin, and discovered that knocking out the clathrin gene did not kill cells. Finally, he started his own lab at UCLA, researching proteins involved in cell transport.
Ann M. Pullen was born in Eastbourne, England. As a child, she enjoyed exploring the outdoors and using a microscope to dissect insects. She attended University of Bath, where she worked in a lab with Michael J. Danson. She also experienced research placements in an agricultural lab near Bristol, England, and subsequently at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. She matriculated at Cambridge University to study immunology with Alan J. Munro, researching Peyer’s patch T cell hybridomas. Pullen then took a postdoc at the National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine in Denver, Colorado. There, she focused her work on T cells, before moving to an assistant professorship at University of Washington, where she collaborated with Michael Patrick Stuart on Mycoplasma fermentans and began using transgenic mice to study extrathymic T cell development.
Daniel P. Raleigh grew up in Arcata, California. He attended Humboldt State University, and was pushed by an excellent faculty member towards chemistry. He loved math, but he felt he lacked the “spark” to be an original mathematician. Raleigh attended graduate school at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; there he joined Robert G. Griffin's laboratory, where he became interested in biological problems, which he pursued during a biochemistry postdoc at University of Oxford. When at State University New York, Stony Brook, he immediately established his lab, developing his own form of management and mentoring. He has purposely chosen to avoid corporate funding. He is interested in the history of science, as he feels it important to place scientific findings in broader context. When not working, he focuses his time on environmental causes.
Frank J. Rauscher, III grew up near Washington, D.C. His father was director of the National Cancer Institute, to which Rauscher attributes his early interest in biology. He attended Moravian College, spending breaks in labs at Columbia University and Yale-New Haven Hospital. Next, Rauscher entered Edwin Cadman’s lab as a technician. Interested in molecular biology and oncogene research, he entered graduate school at SUNY Buffalo, where he studied the interaction of drugs and chromatin. During a postdoc in the Tom Curran lab at Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, his research focused on the fosoncogene. Finally, Rauscher set up his lab as an assistant professor at the Wistar Institute. He discusses grant writing, competition, “hypothesis driven” science, and the importance of basic cancer research.
Pradip Raychaudhuri grew up in Calcutta, India. His grandfather influenced him in mathematics, working problems with him from an early age. His father inspired his interest in the Hindu religion, believing Hinduism and science were compatible. Raychaudhuri attended Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, where he studied protein synthesis in Umadas Maitra's lab. Next, he accepted a postdoc in the Joseph R. Nevins lab at Rockefeller University, where he showed that E1A activates transcription factors by removing tumor suppressors. He discusses funding difficulties, grant writing, balancing clinical and basic science, and recent funding history. After three years as a postdoctoral fellow at Duke University Raychaudhuri accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Illinois College of Medicine; he has since received tenure.
Lee W. Riley was born in Japan and raised near Tokyo and in Bangkok, Thailand. He attended Stanford University and University of California, San Francisco. After deciding to pursue medicine, he completed his internship and residency at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Riley then accepted a fellowship position as Epidemiologic Intelligence Service officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and then as postdoc at Stanford to study enteropathogenic E. coli using molecular biology technology. After time spent studying TB in India, he accepted an assistant professorship at Cornell University Medical College in New York, where he worked on devising a technique to diagnose primary and reactivation TB. Riley's interest in public health led him to work on developing a Salmonella vaccine for chickens. Now, he is the Director of the Fogarty International Center Global Health Equity Scholars Program at University of California, Berkeley, where he continues to work on TB pathogenesis, drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, and global health focusing on infectious diseases of urban slums.
Scott W. Rogers was born in Ogden, Utah. As a child, he participated in science fairs, attended the National Youth Science Camps, and spent summers working in national parks. He matriculated at Utah State to study botany, but soon found it boring, wanting to be “more active in the discovery process.” Though delayed by family difficulties, he entered University of Utah to study human genetics. In Martin Rechsteiner’s cell biology lab, he set out to show that protein degradation could occur outside lysosome and could be selective, and discovered PEST sequences. He took a postdoc at the Salk Institute, working on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. He set up his lab at the University of Colorado Health Science Center, but soon took a position at the University of Utah.
David Ron was born in a kibbutz near Haifa, Israel. During medical school he spent a summer working in Avraham Hershko’s lab, and at Hammersmith Hospital in London, where he did rotations in endocrinology, neurology, and hematology. After a year at the Technion he entered the army for five years. He was a medic assigned to the Golan Heights during a war with Lebanon; soldiers there suffered crash injuries, and Ron published a paper on forced bicarbonate infusion as a treatment for renal failure. During a fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital, Ron became interested in genetic regulation of responses to stresses on the endoplasmic reticulum. Ron is now an assistant professor at the Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, where he researches CHOP and the IRE-1beta gene.
Antony Rosen grew up in South Africa. He was not especially inspired by school until he got to medical school, which, in South Africa, begins right after high school. He did a rotating internship and studied for a year in Capetown with Wieland Gevers. His PhD application was rejected by the authorities in South Africa, so he accepted a postdoc in the Alan A. Aderem lab at Rockefeller University. Interested in returning to clinical medicine, he secured an Osler residency and rheumatology fellowship at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He soon accepted a faculty position and established his own lab. Rosen’s current research centers on apoptosis. He discusses practical applications of his work, views on patents, competition and collaboration in science, and the origin of his ideas.
Charles M. Rubin grew up in Deal, New Jersey and attended the University of Pennsylvania. Inspired by a course in genetics, he decided to study medicine. He studied chromosome abnormalities in William Mellman’s lab, conducting research on spina bifida; he found gratification in helping sick children. He was admitted to Tufts University School of Medicine. Rubin did subspecialty training in pediatric hematology/oncology at the University of Minnesota, and later accepted a fellowship at the University of Chicago. He conducted research on chromosome abnormalities and studying large pieces of DNA with pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Rubin discusses national treatment protocols, research and clinical practice, and his shift toward practice. He finishes with a discussion of the genetic component in cancer and the limits of gene therapy.
Ariel Ruiz i Altaba was born in Mexico City, but raised in Spain. From an early age he was interested in science and nature, collecting specimens. He matriculated at University of Barcelona, but decided to move to the United States to study molecular biology, a subject that piqued his interest after a lecture about DNA cloning. In G. Nigel Godson’s lab at New York University, he published his first paper, on the promotion, termination, and anti-termination in the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon of E. coli. He moved to graduate study at Harvard University under Douglas A. Melton, researching peptide growth factors and Xhox3, a vertebrate homeobox gene for anterioposterior patterning. After a postdoc, he accepted a position at the Skirball Institute at NYU. He is now a professor at University of Geneva Medical School.
Hannele Ruohola-Baker was born in Kullaa, Finland. While at the University of Helsinki, a dynamic biochemistry professor, Ossi Renkonen, introduced her to the practice of scientific research; she joined his lab and began work on studying particular carbohydrates in proteins. After receiving her bachelor’s and master’s, Ruohola-Baker decided to pursue graduate school abroad, ultimately entering Yale University. She worked in the labs of Terry Platt’s lab and Susan Ferro-Novick, developing an assay for cellular transport. Over the course of two postdocs, Ruohola-Baker moved away from protein secretion into the field of developmental biology, studying Drosophila and oogenesis. She is now a principal investigator at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Mark A. Saper was born in New York City. As a child he was interested in math and biology, writing an exceptional paper on protein biosynthesis. Saper attended the University of Connecticut, spending summers working at his uncle’s engineering firm and Janos Varga’s laboratory. His advisor was a professor of biophysics who steered him into chemistry; organic chemistry sparked his interest in biology. Wile at graduate school at Rice University, he studied the structure of sterols in Florante Quiocho’s lab, until a Weizmann fellowship sent him to Israel. There and Germany he worked on ribosomal crystallography. He is now an assistant professor at the University of Michigan, teaching and working on the structure of protein tyrosine phosphatases and protein secretion in Yersenia.
Erin M. Schuman was born in San Gabriel, California. She attended University of Southern California, initially interested in law, but switching to psychology and completing an an honors thesis with Laura Baker studying memory in twins. She decided to attend graduate school at Princeton because of Joseph Farley’s work on learning in memory using invertebrate systems. She followed Farley to Indiana University, though returned to Princeton to complete her thesis. She then accepted a postdoctoral position at the Daniel V. Madison laboratory at Stanford studying long-term neuronal potentiation, culminating in a series of papers on synaptic transmission (two of which appeared in Science). From there Schuman accepted a position at California Institute of Technology, studying decentralized production of proteins at the dendrites and synaptic feedback mechanisms and cadherins.
Miguel C. Seabra grew up in Lisbon, Portugal. His father had a great influence on his decision to enter medical school, where he worked under Fernanda Mesquita. Soon after, he was accepted into the doctoral program at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. He had trouble with lectures in English and suffered quite a bit of culture shock and homesickness at first. In Joseph Goldstein’s lab, he continued his research on cell cholesterol metabolism, helped purify the geranylgeranyltransferase enzyme, and published a paper in Cell. Eventually, Seabra moved to the Imperial College School of Medicine in London. He compares scientific collaboration in the US and England, explains his research on prenylation of Rab proteins, and talks about the support he has received to cure choroideremia.
Charles N. Serhan grew up in Brooklyn and did his undergraduate work at State University of New York at Stony Brook, where he studied biochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Michael Heidelberger persuaded Serhan to go to graduate school at New York University and to work in the lab of Gerald Weissmann, where his interest in the role of neutrophils in inflammation led to Serhan’s doctoral research. After finishing his PhD, Serhan became a visiting scientist at the Karolinska Institute. He collaborated with James L. Madarain studying white cells’ interaction with epithelial cells, trying to accelerate healing. He studied lipoxins in trout and describes the accidental discovery of trout lipoxin. Serhan says that today’s scientists lead pressured lives, and should not be evaluated by grants they receive or laboratory size.
Kevan M. Shokat was raised in Albany, California. His parents were active politically, participating in anti-war and anti-shah movements during the 1970s that culminated in the 1979 Iranian Revolution. While Shokat’s high school was vocationally-minded, a guidance counselor suggested he attend Reed College. He did, majoring in chemistry. He completed his thesis with Ronald W. McClard, making inhibitors of enzymes, and doing enzyme kinetics and nucleotide metabolism. While attending grad school at University of California, Berkeley, he worked with Peter G. Schultz in biological chemistry in antibody catalysis. He later accepted a position at Princeton University and received the Pew Scholars Program award. He left Princeton for a position at the University of California, San Francisco, undertaking chemical genetic research on kinases and their substrates.
Stewart H. Shuman was born in Queens, New York. His high school offered an advanced program in science; he recalls especially enjoying an exciting biology class. He also took a college-level class and attended a National Science Foundation program while in high school. He graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Wesleyan University and completed his MD/PhD degree at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva Unversity. He began his career at Massachusetts General Hospital, then moved to the Laboratory of Viral Diseases at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). From there he joined Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, where he remains today. He has published many articles about his work, capping enzyme in vaccinia virus and covalent catalysis.
Philippe M. Soriano grew up in New York City, with parents of French descent. Soriano’s childhood trips to France persuaded him to attend the University of Paris, working with DNA sequences in higher mammals in the lab of Giorgio Bernardi. His work on DNA cloning and fractionation techniques earned Soriano two doctorates, and he taught cDNA cloning in South Africa and Tunisia, a topic he uses to discuss science in Third World countries, his international perspective, and the danger of scientific inbreeding. Soriano began a postdoc in the Jaenisch lab in Hamburg, which later moved to MIT, then left for a position at Baylor College of Medicine. He discusses his future research and his plans to move to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.
Jonathan S. Stamler was born near Oxford, England. Despite barely graduating high school, his father got him into Brandeis, where he wanted only to play tennis. After a hazing injury took his off the court, he decided to pass the time by studying. By sophomore year he was pre-med. He finished Phi Beta Kappa and was accepted to Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. He found his preceptor, Ray Matta, who inspired Stamler to study cardiology. While doing his residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, he read about free radicals and started researching them. Eventually he came upon nitric oxide, still his area of interest. After a few fellowships, he ended up at Duke University, where he received tenure in two years.
Markus Stoffel was born in Cologne, Germany. He was interested in science from an early age, and spent an influential high school year abroad in Cambridge, England, where he was struck by the specialization of the educational system. Interested in medicine, Stoffel began studying at Rheinische Friedrich-Willhelms-Universität, but was soon drawn back to Cambridge University. Next, Stoffel took an internship at University of Hamburg and another at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in New York. Influenced by a budding interest in the genetics of diabetes, Stoffel worked under Graeme I. Bell at the University of Chicago, before accepting a position at Rockefeller University, working on a chromosome 20 project and looking at the genes and transcription factors involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
William Weis was born in Queens, New York. As a child, he especially liked mathematics and science. In high school he took two science classes every year and was on the math team. Weis attended Princeton where he studied biochemistry and discovered spectroscopy, writing his graduation thesis on rhodopsin spectroscopy. At Harvard for graduate school, Weis found Don Wiley’s crystallography lab perfect and worked on influenza hemagglutinin. Next, he spent a year at Yale, working on simulated annealing, getting a better model of hemagglutinin. From there he went to Columbia University Medical Center, where he spent the “best four years of [his] life” studying the structure of C-type lectins using MAD phasing. Now at Stanford, he manages a lab, and enjoys writing and teaching.
John H. Weiss grew up in San Francisco, California and attended Stanford University, to study biology and neuroscience. While at Stanford University School of Medicine, uncertainty prevented him from seeking a lab position. During his residency, he met Dennis W. Choi and entered the Stanford Ph.D. program in neuroscience. In the Choi lab he began work on mechanisms of nerve cell degeneration in stroke and on glutamate's toxic effect on nerve cells. Research on nerve degenerative diseases on Guam led Weiss to study ß-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). He discovered that BMAA's toxicity depends on a covalent interaction with other compounds. Now at University of California, Irvine, he discusses setting up his lab, research, and collaboration with other scientists.
Trevor Williams was born in Wolverhampton, England. A class with Tony Minson at Cambridge piqued his interest in virology. After his second year he won a research fellowship to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, where he worked on herpes virus in James McDougall’s lab. The next year his interest in the molecular genetics of cancer as related to viruses led him to spend a summer fellowship in Joe Sambrook’s lab at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Subsequently, Trevor moved to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund in London, where he began his PhD studies with Michael Hayman, but later switched to Michael Fried’s lab to study cell enhancers. Shifting from virology to molecular biochemistry, he accepted a postdoc in Robert Tjian’s lab at University of California, Berkeley. Realizing that science in the United States provided a more comprehensive market for all kinds of research, Williams decided not to return to Britain. He accepted an assistant professorship at Yale, where he is now an associate professor.
Jeffrey Wilusz grew up in South Amboy, New Jersey and attended Rutgers. He found thinking through scientific issues similar to solving puzzles. Wilusz became interested in virology and began graduate work at Duke University, where Jack Keene and Thomas Shenk became his mentors. Lessons learned in Keene's lab helped Wilusz identify a leader RNA that binds to La protein. He began the sequencing of Ebola virus-identified RNA structural regions that recognize antibodies, and began studying VA RNA in the Shenk lab. Wilusz soon took a position at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, where he continued to pursue his interest in RNA research. He discusses pursuing diverse lines of research in a lab, conference presentations, publishing, funding, and trends in the biomedical sciences.
Mark Winey was born in Chicago, Illinois. His initial interest in genetics resulted from his younger sister’s galactosemia. In high school, he took many science classes and began his enduring love of the outdoors. While at Syracuse University, he also took advantage of SUNY Stony Brook’s nearby forestry school, though he majored in biology. A microbiology class convinced him to focus on yeast, which he still loves for its genetics and application to the study of human disease. He attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin, then went to the University of Washington for a postdoc to study centrosomes. Next, he accepted a faculty position at the University of Colorado. He continues to research MPS1, MPS2, and NDC1 and work with students.
Tian Xu was born in Jiaxing City. During the Cultural Revolution, his parents endured “reeducation,” the family moved to a shack, and Xu’s schooling was negatively impacted. He took up Go to keep himself challenged mentally. After the Cultural Revolution, Xu studied genetics at Fudan University. When a famous mathematician, Shiing-Shen Chern, returned to Xu's hometown from Berkeley, Xu resolved to go to the United States. He went to Yale University, where he entered Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas’s lab. Xu stubbornly resisted learning English until he entered Gerald Rubin’s laboratory at University of California, Berkeley. He later became a principal investigator at Yale. He discusses his current research on cancer and the LATS and DRPLA genes, motivation for pursuing science, and the advantages and disadvantages of being a principal investigator.
Douglas Yee was born in Detroit to parents who had fled China just before World War II. He came to like chemistry while attending the University of Michigan, where he studied zoology and anthropology. During the summers he worked in Joan Bull’s lab at the National Institutes of Health and became interested in cancer and genetics. He entered medical school at the University of Chicago; there he studied Epstein-Barr virus. His internship and residency followed at North Carolina Memorial Hospital. Then he accepted a staff fellow position at the National Cancer Institute, where he researched insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in Marc E. Lippman’s lab. He went on to an instructorship at Georgetown University, then to an assistant professorship at University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. He is now an associate professor there.
Yi Zhong was born in Ji Shou, Hunan Province. When he was eight the Cultural Revolution reassigned his parents; he was sent to live with his grandparents. After high school he was assigned to a farm. He heard about the 1976 Tiananmen Square protesters on a radio he had built himself. College entrance exams were reinstituted, and Yi was accepted at Tsinghua University, where he was assigned to study nuclear engineering. He met Mu-Ming Poo, who recommended Yi to Chun-Fang Wu at the University of Iowa. Yi suffered severe culture shock when he arrived, marveling at the freedom to determine his own future. After finishing his PhD he set up a lab at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. He visits China regularly, planning to start a parallel lab there.
Kai Zinn was born in Berkeley, California, but grew up in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He attended the University of California, San Diego, where Paul Saltman inspired him to study chemistry. During his last year in college Zinn worked on an independent study with Jack Kyte. After graduation Zinn had planned to travel, but broke his leg while at Yosemite and ended up at Kyte’s lab for the summer. Kyte persuaded Zinn to attend Harvard for his PhD. There he worked on SV40 in Mark Ptashne’s lab. Zinn joined Tom Maniatis’s lab to work on interferon, then moved to Corey Goodman’s lab. After finishing postdocs at Stanford and Berkeley, he accepted a job at California Institute of Technology, where he is now an associate professor.
Charles S. Zuker was born and raised in Arica, Chile. He attended the Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, where he worked as a teaching assistant, learning about scientific research from a doctoral student. He attended MIT for graduate school, where he worked with Harvey F. Lodish using slime molds as a system for studying development and trying to characterize the genes turned on as the molds developed spores. He took a postdoctoral position at the University of California, Berkeley, focusing on neurobiology. He then accepted a faculty position at the University of California, San Diego, and set up his research on Drosophila signaling pathways. He discusses competition in science, his gene research, the development of electrophysiology techniques, the NIH, and balancing life and work.
E.N. (Ned) Brandt, company historian of The Dow Chemical Company and a major figure in Dow’s public relations activities for over three decades, begins the interview by touching on his family background and early education, before recalling his activities in news writing positions during high school and journalism school at Michigan State. Brandt joined a quartermaster ROTC unit in 1941, went through Officer Candidate School, and in 1944 volunteered for overseas duty. He describes several interesting experiences during the war in France when he was an intelligence officer and a public relations officer. After a brief stint with UPI in Detroit, Brandt returned to France and worked for the French broadcasting system and the State Department at the Paris embassy. He discusses his work in France, art studies in Paris, and travels to Algeria. In 1953 Brandt resigned from the foreign service and joined Dow. This section of the interview includes recollections of Dow’s early public relations department and Bud Smith, and work with Bill Schuette as public relations manager of the newly created Midland Division. Brandt next discusses his concerns as assistant director and then director of public relations in the 1960s, including such topics as Dow’s global reorganization in 1965, speech writing for Dow’s top executives, environmental issues, The Dow Story, and outside involvement with public affairs organizations. In describing his activities during the 1970s and 1980s, Brandt talks about a visit to Chile, public relations in South Africa, difficulties with Mark Batterson during Zoltan Merszei’s tenure as president of Dow, the TV Hot Box, the origins of Dow’s history function and the Dow archives, his own decision to retire, and the Futures Initiative. The closing segments of the transcript focus on Brandt’s outside activities, especially for historical societies and foundations.
George M. Church was born on MacDill Air Force Base in Florida and lived near Tampa, Florida, until high school. He read a lot, especially science; when he was about ten he built an analog computer. For high school he was sent to Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, which he loved and where he throve. Dartmouth College, which was nearby, was beginning timeshare computing, and Church used their computer to teach himself more about computers. Church entered Duke University and finished in two years. He took a summer course in quantum physics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then began a job in Sung-Hou Kim’s crystallography lab. There he “finally found the intersection of computers and biology.” Also during these years he published five papers. Church entered Harvard University’s PhD program, doing sequencing in Walter Gilbert’s lab, working on polony sequences, and developing some of the earliest sequencers; he introduced multiplexed sequencing. Next he worked a short while at Biogen Research Corporation before taking a postdoc in Gail Martin’s lab at the University of California, San Francisco. Needing a job in Boston, Church talked to a friend, Gary Ruvkun, who offered him an assistant professorship in genetics at Harvard Medical School. He has advanced through the ranks and is now Director of the Harvard-MIT Genome Technology Center and Director of the Lipper Center for Computational Genetics, as well as a full professor in genetics.
Peter B. Lederman was born in Weimar, Germany. When Peter was seven the family left for the United States; eventually Lederman chose to attend the Forest Hills High School, where he was inspired in science by his chemistry and biology teacher, Paul Brandwein. Lederman majored in chemical engineering when he entered the University of Michigan; Brymer Williams became Lederman’s advisor and mentor. Lederman accepted a job as processing engineer in lube oils at Shell Oil in Illinois, but he left there to go back to Michigan for a master’s degree. He was drafted into the Army Petroleum School, where he taught petroleum technology, but subsequently returned to graduate school. From there Lederman began work on a pilot unit in ethylene-propylene copolymers for Esso Research Laboratories, later moving to Esso’s New Jersey laboratories as a process engineer. About to be promoted, he decided to accept an associate professorship at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. While teaching there he worked on a solid waste management program for the garbage committee of New Providence, New Jersey. This interest eventually branched into a general fascination with environmental issues; while at Poly he obtained a National Science Foundation grant to help disadvantaged students study pollution. Lederman left Poly for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, where he attempted to combine fragmented areas of pollution. He worked as the director of the Industrial Waste Treatment Research Laboratory until it was moved to Ohio, at which time Lederman spent a year as head of the program in Washington, D.C., before returning to New Jersey. He spent his next four years at Research-Cottrell, developing electrostatic precipitators, negotiating contracts in Japan, and managing crises. Superfund had just been established by statute, and hazardous materials had become a hot issue, so Lederman went to Roy F. Weston, Inc., to consult on hazardous materials. There he was responsible for government contracts, especially technical assistance for emergency response consulting, and strategic policy regarding hazardous materials. Wanting to finish his career in academia, Lederman went to the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) in the Center for Environmental Engineering and Sciences, in the Office of Intellectual Property, and as Research Professor of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Policy.
Linda C. Meade-Tollin was born and raised in London, West Virginia, one of two children. Her father was a dentist and a community activist, her mother a teacher of languages and a guidance counselor. Always enthusiastically encouraged by parents and teachers, Meade-Tollin did well in school, skipping two grades. When she was in ninth grade her high school was integrated, and the three top graduates in her year were black women. Although there were no science classes in her schools until high school, Meade-Tollin was always interested in science, and when she entered West Virginia State College she decided to major in chemistry. She worked at Harlem and Bellevue Hospitals before entering a chemistry PhD program at the City University of New York (CUNY) at the age of twenty one; a year later she transferred to a program in biochemistry. During her graduate career, Meade-Tollin spent time teaching and she traveled among the various CUNY campuses to do research with Burton Tropp—her doctoral thesis dealt with gene expression in E. coli. Meade-Tollin’s first faculty appointment was at the College at Old Westbury, and, for part of her time there, she was also a visiting assistant professor at Rockefeller University, working on sickle cell anemia in Anthony Cerami’s lab. She applied for and received a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral award at the University of Arizona; at the end of her award at Arizona, Meade-Tollin married and she also decided to stay at the University. She was the only African-American woman to head a biomedical research laboratory at the University for many years; her areas of research focused on DNA damage, angiogenesis, and cancer invasion and metastasis. During this time she developed a reproducible and physiologically relevant bioassay for angiogenic inhibitors and enhancers suitable for drug discovery screening, and she spent a year as Faculty Development Fellow at Morehouse School of Medicine.
Burnaby Munson entered Tarleton State College in central Texas and transferred to the University of Texas in Austin, Texas; physical chemistry was his favorite subject. He studied the reactions of acetylene while in Robbin Anderson’s lab and completed his PhD there as well. Munson’s first job was with Humble Oil in Baytown, Texas, where he worked on solution thermodynamics, extracting paraffins from aromatics. Humble was collegial, and training continued with a lecture series organized by Joe Franklin, who was a good friend and mentor to Munson. Franklin’s small group of high-profile scientists developed the field of ion chemistry in mass spectrometry (MS). When Franklin left Humble for Rice University, the ion chemistry group began to break up. Frank Field took his high-pressure instrument to New Jersey; Frederick Lampe went to Pennsylvania State University; and Munson took a position at the University of Delaware. Munson was recruited to use Delaware’s two instruments, an old time of flight (TOF) and a new CEC 21-110. As a replacement for Joe Franklin and Frank Field, Munson attended his first American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) meeting, which he says was “a plum.” He has since attended most of the American Society of Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) meetings, which subsumed ASTM, and he was president of the Society.
Marion C. Thurnauer attended the University of Chicago for her undergraduate and graduate degrees in chemistry, working with Gerhard Closs, her doctoral thesis advisor. She completed the final experiments for her thesis at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) because the required electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer at the University of Chicago was severely damaged by a chemical explosion that occurred in the University’s chemistry building. Working at ANL, she believes, was probably a factor for her to secure a postdoctoral position in the ANL Chemistry Division (CHM) with James R. Norris and Joseph J. Katz, studying, primarily by EPR spectroscopy, photochemical energy conversion in natural photosynthesis. She was promoted to Assistant Chemist, a staff position, and was, for a few years, the only female staff scientist in CHM and rose to become the first woman CHM Director. Along the way she established “Science Careers in Search of Women,” which ultimately led to the formulation and launching of the ANL Women in Science and Technology (WIST) program. As division director, Thurnauer once again was the only woman among her peers, i.e., division directors and ANL leadership. She had to choose frequently among competing goals and priorities and she had to maintain CHM’s shrinking core funding while working with scientists to secure additional funding. In addition to all her administrative work, Thurnauer was able to continue to be involved with science mainly because her co-workers kept her informed and up to date on their results. As she reminisces, Thurnauer discusses the general state of women in science, but particularly at ANL. She stresses the importance of mentoring, reinforcing, and building networks for women; she talks about having her husband in her division; she explains e-mentoring and recommends it; and she names and describes the work of some of the women who have served as her role models.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Don R. Clay worked in the Bureau of Drugs at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); there he spent several years as Deputy Assistant Commissioner of Planning and Evaluation. Next he took his talents and experience to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Office of Program Planning and Evaluation. His risk assessment work included being liaison among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), and the FDA, which gave him a chance to learn more about the EPA. Frustrated with the bureaucracy at the FDA, Clay moved to the Office of Toxic Substances, where he became Acting Assistant Administrator of what is now the Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPTS). Asbestos occupied much of his attention there, but only emberizing ash was banned. Industry testing was legislated. PCBs became regulated. Nevertheless, Clay’s disenchantment with having to “look for causes” led him to the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) and, for his final position with the EPA, to Assistant Administrator of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). Clay discusses the cultural differences among agencies; their different goals and processes; the differences between career staff and political appointees; and the difficulties of the regulatory process itself. He talks about what he perceives as successes and failures, focusing on asbestos regulation and about his relationship with the U.S. Congress and the influence of the European laws known as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals).
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Victor J. Kimm started in a senior post at the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation. He worked on the Safe Drinking Water Act and promoted the states’ efforts to qualify for delegation of implementation responsibilities. He became Deputy Assistant Administrator in the Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPTS). There he oversaw chemical regulation, resulting in reregistration and the modernizing of outdated protocols. During his ten years as Deputy Assistant Administrator, OPTS was responsible for implementing the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The Office regarded asbestos as the most likely pollutant to establish standards for implementing TSCA Section 6, but it failed the “least burdensome” requirement, in subsequent judicial review. Kimm laments a lack of an appeal by the Department of Justice for the apparent gutting of EPA’s authority to ban substances in products under section 6 of TSCA. He discusses risk assessment (hazard, risk, cost) and risk management (“how high can you jump”) in TSCA and adds his own third aspect, risk communications; he praises OPPTS (Office of Pollution, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, which replaced OPTS), its scientists, and its innovations like health advisories and Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); and he discusses the hobbling of regulation by poorly-designed laws like the Delaney Clause.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Glenn E. Schweitzer began his career as a Foreign Service Officer, moved to the staff of the Vice President’s Marine Science and Technology Council, and finally accepted a position at the U.S. Agency for International Development. He was then asked to manage the new Office of Toxic Substances (OTS) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1974.
Believing that the purpose of the OTS and TSCA was to prevent or reduce exposure to harmful chemicals, Schweitzer spent four years visiting producers to learn about their chemicals and relevant procedures. Schweitzer’s staff supported the establishment and conduct of the Interagency Testing Committee (ITC), which included the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the EPA. The EPA’s role was to choose the many chemicals to be tested; ITC would arrange for steps to prioritize, test, and evaluate them. Schweitzer thought that EPA had an important but not decisive role in human health, but had a critical role in environmental matters. He regards as two successes the simultaneous regulation of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) aerosols by the EPA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), and the FDA beginning in 1977 which he led; and the persuasion of the producers of vinyl chloride to agree to reduce emissions by eighty percent in three months, and their achievements in doing so, a process that he arranged.
Marvin L. Vestal obtained both bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Engineering Sciences from Purdue University, taking a break after two years to volunteer for the draft; he finished his undergraduate degree and master’s degree on the GI Bill, coming out of Purdue with no college debt. During college he worked part time at Johnston Laboratories, meeting there Henry Rosenstock and Merrill Wallenstein, who had studied at the University of Utah under Austin Wahrhaftig and Henry Eyring, and who developed the quasi-equilibrium theory (QET) of mass spectrometry (MS). Vestal worked on the coincidence time-of-flight (TOF) project and also improved the machine with his invention of an electron multiplier. He founded Scientific Research Instrument Corporation (SRIC), with Gordon Fergusson, William Johnston (of Johnston Labs), and Bob Jones. The company licensed the new process chemical ionization (CI) from its inventors, Burnaby Munson and Frank Field. Ever restless, Vestal decided that the academic world held appeal, so he went to the University of Utah for a PhD in chemical physics, studying under Wahrhaftig and Futrell. He built a triple quadrupole MS for photodissociation; with Calvin Blakely he built a crossbeam MS for his dissertation. PhD in hand, Vestal accepted a position at the University of Houston, where he stayed for eleven years. During those years he invented and patented thermospray and started another company, Vestec, which did so well he had to leave the University to work at Vestec (the company commercialized MALDI/TOF instruments). Vestec’s merger with PerSeptive, led by Noubar Afeyan, eventually led to the merger with Applied Biosystems. After retiring for a short while, Vestal founded Virgin Instruments.
Allison A. Aldridge attended the University of Illinois as an undergraduate, majoring in biology and taking many courses in chemistry. She then began a job in quality assurance at Hercules Aerospace, Inc. A friend there encouraged her to seek an advanced degree, and she soon applied for and was accepted into the PhD program in chemistry at Loyola University in Chicago, Illinois. Degree in hand, Aldridge accepted a senior scientist job at Unilever, where she stayed for about three years. Over her career, she worked for a number of chemical companies: Abbott Laboratories, Mikart, Inc., Revogenex, Inc., and Speed Laboratory, Inc. Dr. Aldridge was also Chair of the Committee on Minority Affairs at the American Chemical Society.
Gloria L. Anderson was born and raised in Altheimer, Arkansas. Anderson was always good in school, even skipping grades, yet she had to attend segregated schools. She obtained her undergraduate degree from Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical, and Normal College (AM&N) and her PhD from the University of Chicago, studying fluorine using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in Leon Stock’s lab. Anderson became associate professor and then chair of the department of chemistry at Morris Brown College, where she researched fluorine-19, and studied amantadines as potential antivirals. She held the Fuller E. Callaway Chair until she became Dean of Academic Affairs, and resumed the Chair after her return to teaching. In addition to her work for the college, Anderson served on the boards of Georgia and Atlanta Public Broadcasting, as well as many others, and she has been on an advisory committee for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Cynthia J. Burrows was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, one of two children. When she was in ninth grade the family moved to Boulder, Colorado, where later her high school chemistry class made beer that eventually exploded all over the classroom. That was her first clue that she wanted to be a chemist. She attended the University of Colorado and spent her junior year at the University of Edinburgh taking courses from Evelyn A.V. Ebsworth. In her senior year she entered Stanley Cristol’s lab, working on Stern-Volmer plots. Next she spent four months as balloon technician on Ascension Island, returning to Cristol’s lab for the remainder of the year. Burrows entered Cornell University’s PhD program, where she became intrigued by Barry Carpenter’s class and by reaction mechanisms. For a postdoc she went to the lab of Jean-Marie Lehn in Strasbourg, France. She went on to positions at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and then the University of Utah, universities in which she was the only woman in her departments. Burrows discusses at length women in chemistry and the changes she has seen during her career; support and mentoring from her friends and colleagues in COACh and more informal groups; her sabbatical in Okazaki, Japan; being mentored by John Osborn and mentoring her own students; and about how to interest more young women and men in science by teaching more science earlier.
Philip Eaton's oral history covers his childhood, undergraduate career at Princeton, graduate work at Harvard, and his long career at the University of Chicago. In this interview he discusses teaching, consulting, and his work in organic chemistry. Eaton concludes the interview with a discussion on the future or scientific research, maintaining excellence in chemistry education and research, and thoughts on his wife, Phyllis.
Richard E. Honig was born in Göttingen, Germany, the eldest of three boys. He attended Robert College, an American college in Istanbul, from which he graduated with a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering. In 1938, Honig moved to the United States to pursue a Ph.D. in Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Through a course in nuclear physics, he became interested in the nature of atoms, molecules and particularly isotopes, and eventually built his own mass spectrometer to study the effects of deuterium and cyclotron radiation on methane. His thesis on the nature of gas flow in that mass spectrometer was written under the direction of Clark Goodman. In 1946, Honig accepted a position at Socony-Vacuum Labs in Paulsboro, New Jersey, where he was able to continue the pursuit of his interest in the study of small hydrocarbon molecules with mass spectrometry. Honig joined the research staff at the Radio Corporation of America Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1950, where he remained for the rest of his long career. His work began in Don North’s group, studying materials used in hot cathodes. He designed and built a two-stage mass spectrometer, which led a few years later to the development of a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). He spent a year during the mid-1950’s at the University of Brussels helping to start a mass spectrometry laboratory with Jean Drowart. Honig’s career at RCA focused on materials characterization, particularly impurities in semiconductor materials, first with mass spectrometry and then later with a variety of surface analysis techniques when he became head of the newly formed Materials Characterization Research Group there in the mid-1960’s. His long-time interest in cluster formation led to his measurement of elemental vapor pressures as a function of temperature and the evaluation of previously reported values for these quantities. Honig stepped down from his managerial position in 1982 and spent the next several years back in the laboratory helping to design and build a new mass spectrometer to study the organic materials on surfaces.
Reatha Clark King was born in Pavo, Georgia, the second of three daughters. Her father was a sharecropper who never learned to read or write, and her mother, who went to school only through third grade, worked as a maid. King attended Clark College; chemistry was a required course for a home economics major, and King was immediately smitten with it. She resolved to become a research chemist, an ambition encouraged by Alfred Spriggs, head of the department, in whose lab she worked on gas chromatography. King won a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship was admitted to the University of Chicago, where she obtained her PhD in thermochemistry. Her first job was as research chemist at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., where she remained for five years. While there she worked on a project for the Advanced Research Projects Agency and published several papers. When her husband accepted a position at Nassau Community College in Garden City, Long Island, New York, King took an assistant professorship at York College of the City University of New York, progressing to associate dean of the college. From there she was chosen president of Metropolitan State University in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, and then she moved on to General Mills, Inc., as a vice president, and as president of the General Mills Foundation, a philanthropic organization.
Madeleine Jacobs grew up in Washington, D.C., the younger of two children. Her father was a musician, her mother a secretary. The television program Watch Mr. Wizard convinced her she wanted to be a scientist, in particular a chemist. She matriculated into George Washington University with a full scholarship. After college, Jacobs began a master’s program at the University of Maryland, but quit after a year. She had always loved writing and wrote extremely well, so she applied for a job with Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN). After a short stint as a writer at National Institutes of Health, she spent five years as a science writer, and then became head of media relations and publications at the National Bureau of Standards. From that position, Jacobs’ career took her to the Smithsonian Institution’s Office of Public Affairs, beginning as science writer and ending as its Director. After fourteen years at the Smithsonian, Jacobs returned to C&EN to become managing editor. After one and a half years, she became editor-in-chief, a title she held for eight and a half additional years. At C&EN, she reawakened her interest in women in chemistry. She initiated “The Scorecard” to document the progress of women on chemistry faculties. Finding this scorecard effective in making faculties sit up and take notice on the disparity between the number of male and female professors, she began a scorecard for industry. After ten years at C&EN, Jacobs became the first woman and first person without a PhD to become Chief Executive Officer of the American Chemical Society, the position she holds today.
Lloyd M. Smith grew up in Berkeley, California, one of four children. His father was a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and his mother a professor of mathematics. Smith attended the University of California, Berkeley; there he liked biology, chemistry and physics and chose to major in biochemistry. He worked in Wayne Hubbell’s lab, studying membranes and synthetic chemistry. On Hubbell’s advice he enrolled in graduate school at Stanford University, entering Harden McConnell’s lab to work on diffusion in membranes, obtaining his PhD in biophysics. He accepted a postdoc with Leroy Hood at the California Institute of Technology. During months of sequencing he thought up the first fluorescence-based automated DNA sequencing instrument. Working with Michael Hunkapiller on commercialization of his technology, he became a consultant for Applied Biosystems (ABI). Smith accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin, eventually becoming Director of the Genome Center and Chair of the Analytical Sciences Division in the Department of Chemistry. There Smith developed another laser system for sequence analysis and began the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) on nucleic acids. He also founded his own company, Third Wave Technologies.
Morris Tanenbaum grew up in Huntington, West Virginia, one of three children. His Jewish parents had come from Russia and Poland by way of Buenos Aires, Argentina; they owned a delicatessen, in which Morris worked after school. Tanenbaum chose to attend Johns Hopkins University because of its reputation for chemistry. He liked physical chemistry and physics; one of his professors, Clark Bricker, who was leaving for Princeton University, convinced Tanenbaum to accept a research assistantship there and to obtain a PhD. Tanenbaum worked on spectroscopy in Bricker’s lab and the mechanical properties of metal single crystals in Walter Kauzmann’s lab. After being awarded his PhD, Tanenbaum went to work at Bell Laboratories where he did the original studies of single crystal III-V semiconductors. He, with the assistance of Ernest Buehler, made the world’s first silicon transistor. Working with Calvin Fuller, Tanenbaum invented the diffused base silicon transistor using solid-state diffusion. While at Bell Labs, Tanenbaum worked in Metallurgy and Materials Science, the Research Division, and the Electron Device Division. Western Electric recruited Tanenbaum to lead its new Engineering Research Center. There, he recruited PhD’s in the physical sciences and engineering with an interest in applications for the manufacturing floor. He later became Vice President of Engineering for all of Western Electric and then Vice President for Transmission Equipment. Tanenbaum was called back to Bell Labs as Executive Vice President with responsibility for all of development. Then he moved to AT&T Corporate Offices as Senior Vice President of Engineering and Network Services. He later served as President of New Jersey Bell. In 1980, he was called back to AT&T as Executive Vice President for Administration. During that period, he was much involved in the Federal antitrust case against AT&T that was eventually settled by a Consent Degree that separated AT&T into several independent companies (the “Baby Bells”) providing local telephone service and AT&T retaining Western Electric, most of Bell Labs, and the long distance services. His final position was CFO and Vice Chairman of the AT&T Board of Directors.
Herman Fialkov grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Always “a smart kid” who wanted to build a bridge across the Atlantic Ocean, Fialkov attended City College of New York, studying engineering. He left college to take a job with Emerson Radio Corporation, and then enlisted in the United States Army, ultimately serving in the infantry in the Battle of the Bulge. When he was discharged in 1946 he went back to Emerson as a mechanical designer and to night school at New York University. He founded General Transistor Corporation, whose first major customer was UNIVAC. In 1960 General Transistor Corporation merged with General Instrument Corporation and began making integrated circuits. Fialkov invested in Arthur Rock’s venture capital firm, Rock and Davis, and became intrigued by venture capital. He founded his own venture capital firm, Geiger and Fialkov, and with that launched almost fifty years in personal and venture capital investments, financing the startup or early development of many important companies, including Intel; Teledyne; Electroglas, Inc.; Standard Microsystems; General Signal; Globecomm Systems; and several Israeli companies. Fialkov describes the cyclical nature of business and the general economy, and also his belief that a successful venture capital firm can expect 30% failures, 30% average performers, 30% moneymakers, and 10% wild successes. He attributes his choice of venture capital area to his love of technology, a “vibrant, changing technological environment.”
Kazuo Inamori was born in 1932 in Kagoshima, Japan, one of seven children. During elementary school, he was a very spirited child who loved science and also showed an interest in the machines that were in his father’s printing shop. He enrolled at Kagoshima University, where he majored in organic chemistry. After graduating, he worked at at Shofu Industries, where he developed fosterite to serve as an insulator for high frequency radio waves and invented the electric tunnel kiln. In 1959, together with seven other colleagues, Inamori established Kyoto Ceramic, which later became known as Kyocera. Inamori quickly secured a contract from Matsushita Electronics Industries (now Panasonic), and then with Fairchild Semiconductor, which placed orders for silicon transistor headers. Kyocera greatly contributed to the development of the U.S. semiconductor industry. To avoid dependence on the semiconductor market, Inamori diversified Kyocera, turning to the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, cutting tools, and bioceramics; later, he moved Kyocera into other areas—especially the manufacture of electronic information equipment, e.g. laptops, peripheral equipment, and telecommunications equipment. Inamori established DDI Corporation (Daini Denden) to compete against NTT (Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation). In 2000 DDI merged with KDD (Kokusai Denshin Denwa) and IDO (Nippn Idou Tsushin Corporation, which had been started by Toyota), to form KDDI, which today is the second largest comprehensive telecommunications company in Japan. In 1984 Inamori also established the Inamori Foundation, which awards the annual Kyoto Prize, honoring those who have made extraordinary contributions to science, civilization, and the spirituality of humankind.
Donald L. Klein grew up in Brooklyn, New York. With his childhood friend, Neil Wotherspoon, Klein developed an early passion for chemistry, electronics, and amateur radio, interests that would follow him throughout his life and career. After completing a degree under Roland Ward, Klein was recruited to work for Bell Laboratories, and began working on the production of semiconductors. His group was involved in developing etching techniques for semiconductors and methods to prevent different types of contamination in semiconductor production. While at Bell, Klein and his colleagues identified the problems with current FET models and processes; then came the idea of using a heavily doped polycrystalline silicon layer as the gate of an FET. The gate was to be supported on dual layers of a silicon nitride and silicon dioxide serving as the gate insulator. Using the FET as a model for integrated circuits, they fabricated and characterized hundreds of FET devices at high yield that exhibited close electrical tolerances. After a restructuring, Klein left Bell to work for IBM.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. James V. Aidala began working with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a college intern in the Office of Pesticide Programs; he returned as a policy analyst in the new Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPTS) after graduate school. From Aidala’s perspective, there was much uncertainty in the early years of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), in part due to challenges with the law’s specificity regarding polychlorinated biphenyls and, later, asbestos and lead, and in part due to logistical, organizational, and legal difficulties in the early years of TSCA. After leaving the EPA Aidala then worked for the U.S. Senate, the Congressional Research Service, and the House of Representatives, where he found that political interest was always more focused on pesticides than toxics. When he returned to the EPA as an associate assistant administrator, pesticides continued to be the priority. Though he found that TSCA prevented crises, it was difficult to get Congress interested and TSCA had a reputation as an overly burdensome law.
Isy Haas was born in Istanbul, Turkey. He matriculated into Princeton University, where he obtained a master’s degree in engineering; his mentor and advisor was George Warfield. Haas accepted a job at Remington Rand Univac in Philadelphia, working on positive-gap diodes under Josh Gray. Subsequently he went to Fairchild Camera and Instrument (later Fairchild Semiconductor); there he worked with Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Victor Grinich, and Jay Last. He developed Avalanche switching and wrote “a few” papers on four-layer diodes. When Last founded Amelco Corporation, Haas left Fairchild for Amelco and stayed on when it became part of Teledyne. He worked with Lionel Kattner on diffusion, and they evolved a proof of principle for diffused isolation.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Charles F. Lettow held one job in the chemical industry before serving in the U.S. Army; after his military service he moved into the field of law. He undertook two clerkships, one with the Hon. Benjamin C. Duniway and one with the Hon. Warren E. Burger, and he was then invited to work for the President’s Council on Environmental Quality. There he was involved in the creation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several environmental laws, including the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). According to Lettow, the law was intentionally not prescriptive in order to give the EPA the flexibility to adapt to innovations, changing uses of materials, and new knowledge about materials. Because of the multifunctional nature of chemicals, they opted for a use restriction provision rather than an FDA-style approval process.
Amy H. Newman matriculated at Mary Washington College, majoring in chemistry and undertaking pre-medical coursework. Most of her peers were women and she found the college to be a very supportive environment; she decided to go to graduate school for medicinal chemistry. She did her postdoctorate with Kenner C. Rice at NIH, where she focused on opiate synthesis and benzodiazopene receptors. Newman then took a position at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research researching sigma receptor ligands; she collaborated with Jeffrey M. Witkin at NIH. At NIH she found a work environment supportive of her growing family and she began conducting research on analogues of benztropine—a dopamine transporter ligand like cocaine that does not have cocaine-like effects on the body. At the end of the interview Newman discusses balancing her family and career; she comments on science education in the United States; and she shares her frustrations with how the communication of science to the public leads to unrealistic expectations for drug development and with the process of drug development itself.
Details Fox's childhood, education, introduction to polymer chemistry under "Speed" Marvel, and work for the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1953, Fox accepted a position at General Electric, and spent his entire career there. He worked on various projects, including polycarbonates, PPPO, PBT, and the development of Lexan and Ultem.
R. Victor Jones matriculated into the University of California, Berkeley and entered the lab of Walter Knight, where he worked in the new field of nuclear magnetic resonance. He continued into graduate school at Berkeley and worked in Carson Jeffries’s lab, where his thesis work dealt with electron transport in a molecular afterglow. As he was finishing his thesis work, William Shockley began an aggressive recruitment of Jones until he finally accepted Shockley’s offer of a job at the new Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory. Shockley believed semiconductors were the wave of the future, and he espoused diffused-base technology. Jones was put to work on the four-layer diode. From the outset, lab work was compartmentalized and Shockley frequently changed the goals of the lab. Uncomfortable in the high-stress atmosphere of the lab and wanting to work with his primary interest, electromagnetic theory, Jones decided after only two years to look for work in the academy, ultimately acceptaing a position at Harvard University. He spent almost fifty years there, teaching electronics.
Gordon Kline discusses his lengthy career at the National Bureau of Standards and his work on applications of organic resins to aviation. Kline also expands on his other polymer-related activities, including his role in setting national and international standards for testing synthetic polymer products, his tenure as Technical Editor of Modern Plastics, and his time in Germany investigating German plastics laboratories.
Jeffrey M. Lipton was born and raised in Bronx, New York, the son of a Polish immigrant. He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, after which he began a career at DuPont; while working at DuPont he received his MBA from Harvard Business School. Lipton's success at DuPont was recognized quickly, so the company called upon him to undertake various projects and roles; at age twenty-nine Lipton was named business manager and head of marketing of color pigments. He then became, over time, director of the development division, head of the photo products division, COO of New England Nuclear (a DuPont acquisition), vice president of the polymers division, and vice president of the planning division, where, in the search for methods of cost reduction, he developed and utilized cash flow cycle time to analyze the company. He then moved to Nova Chemicals Corporation, which he joined as a CFO.
Catherine Hurt Middlecamp attended Cornell University, where women made up about one-fifth of the undergraduate student body. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a BA and a major in chemistry. She was selected as a Danforth Fellow for graduate study and chose to enroll at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she entered Robert West’s research lab on organosilicon chemistry. After finishing her Ph.D., Middlecamp served for a year as a Danforth Teaching Intern at Knox College, then she took a faculty position at Hobart & William Smith Colleges before moving back to the University of Wisconsin, Madison. While there she developed (and still teaches) a general chemistry course for non-science majors, Chemistry in Context. In 2003, Middlecamp was elected chair of the Integrated Liberal Studies (ILS) program, a long-standing interdisciplinary certificate program on campus. The interview concludes with Middlecamp’s views on teaching versus research, which she believes is a false dichotomy; what she believes are the many nefarious ways in which women are seen as unserious scholars; the undervaluation and dismissal of women and teaching; and the inherent difficulties of the tenure system.
James S. Murday was fascinated by solid-state physics and decided to enroll at Cornell University, where he was research assistant for Robert Cotts. Murday‘s interests expanded to include diffusion. At the time, chemistry‘s new pulse techniques provided greater impetus for NMR, and Murday exploited the growing interface between chemistry and physics. When he finished his PhD he was recruited by Henry Resing into the NMR lab at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). He joined the American Vacuum Society (AVS), which united chemistry, materials science, and electronics. When scanning and tunneling microscopes came along, clearly nanostructures were next. AVS officially became the first home of nanoscience. Murday influenced the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Science Foundation, both of which had funding in abundance, to get involved in nano. Eventually the Nanometer Science and Engineering Technology (NSET), a subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), was born and Murday was named Executive Secretary. Murday was also appointed Director of the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), set up to support NSET.
Robert N. Naughten grew up in rural California during the Great Depression. He attended Sequoia High School and met Gordon Moore partially through football and swimming. Moore and Naughten commuted from home to San Jose State University for two years before moving to University of California, Berkeley. The two became roommates and were part of the co-op program. Upon graduating from the pre-med program Naughten was called to participate in the Naval Reserve’s effort in the Korean War. After returning from two tours in Korea, Naughten migrated to the East Coast to attend medical school at Hahnemann University in Philadelphia. Returning to California for an internship at Highland General Hospital. Naughten concluded the interview with reflections on the philanthropic contributions of Gordon and Betty Moore and traits that make Gordon Moore an ideal CEO.
Margaret E. M. Tolbert was born in Suffolk, Virginia at a time when rural Virginia was still very segregated. Her high school had limited resources, but she found excellent mentors and graduated class valedictorian. She decided to attend Tuskegee University for her undergraduate degree, ultimately majoring in chemistry. Though she was the only female student in her class, Tolbert found a community of supportive professors and students with an interest in her well-being. She went on to complete her master’s degree in chemistry at Wayne State University and her PhD in Biochemistry at Brown University. After completing her doctorate, Tolbert returned to Tuskegee as a faculty member, but soon took guest research and management positions at the University of Texas, Florida A&M University, and Brown University; she also completed a postdoctorate in Brussels, Belgium. In 1979, she took the opportunity to become the first woman director of the Carver Research Foundation at Tuskegee University. After almost a decade at the Carver Research Foundation, she went to Standard Oil of Ohio on sabbatical. From that point onward, she transitioned permanently to science management positions, working for BP America, the National Science Foundation, Argonne National Laboratory, and the New Brunswick Laboratory.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Charles M. Auer joined the EPA’s Office of Toxic Substances, before the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) was passed, as an entry level chemist doing screening-level risk assessments. He was the first chair of the Structure Activity Team, which was responsible for developing structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis as a method for evaluating new chemicals. In the early 1990s, Auer was Director of the Existing Chemical Assessment Division. He believes that the Office has been very innovating, adjusting to emerging science on toxicity and applying TSCA while staying within its legal limits, and that the key to an effective toxics program is to be as dynamic as the chemical industry.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Throughout the interview, Bracken discusses her responsibilities in program information, which included the creation of the TSCA Inventory. The Inventory used the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to assign unique identities to chemicals. Bracken was also involved in developing Section 8 rules, and supporting industry efforts to develop internal reporting mechanisms. Internationally, she participated in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) discussions to facilitate data sharing and develop a “base set” of data for new chemicals.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Throughout the interview with J. Clarence Davies, he discussed the difficulties in implementing the Toxic Substances Control Act. He also emphasized the legal constraints within TSCA that hindered creating an effective chemicals control policy and the long overdue need for TSCA reform. He concluded the interview by commenting on the fact that a new European chemicals policy and increased regulatory activity among the States, as well as attention from prominent environmental groups, has driven the current TSCA reform process
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Charles L. Elkins witnessed the centralization of federal environmental regulation in the early 1970s, first as an Office of Management and Budget examiner and then in the newly created Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Within the new EPA, Elkins worked in the Office of Categorical Programs, where he was involved with the pre-Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Office of Toxic Substances and the Noise Abatement Program. Elkins became the director of the Office of Toxic Substances in 1986. While there were managerial challenges to running the office, the biggest challenge he faced was TSCA's lack of a coherent mandate; the program instead consisted of several distinct tasks, each beset with procedural impediments. While the Toxics Release Inventory was not a part of the TSCA program, he thinks it was influential in creating a constituency both within EPA and the public for increased data on toxics.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Linda J. Fisher was the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances; at the time when she became the Assistant Administrator, the Office was primarily focused on pesticides. But, as Fisher recounted, the Office was committed to making the toxics program succeed, often by working around the Toxic Substances Control Act's (TSCA) statutory obligations. The Office was then given increased responsibilities with the Pollution Prevention Act. After the Corrosion Proof Fittings v. EPA case, and the administration's decisions not to appeal, Fisher chose not to pursue a revised asbestos rule because, from her perspective, the industry was changing too quickly and, for the most part, moving out of asbestos.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Mark Greenwood joined the EPA’s Office of General Counsel and eventually became the Assistant General Counsel for Pesticides and Toxic Substances. From there Greenwood joined the newly re-named Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic Substances as Office Director. From his perspective, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is comprised of both a risk assessment and risk management program, but these have developed separately and often in conflict with each other. He met with this difficulty when implementing a cohesive toxics program. In 1992 and 1994 Greenwood participated in Congressional hearings on TSCA, but Congress, in the end, did not provide a clearer agenda.
This oral history is one in a series that looks at the history of the Toxic Substances Control Act from the perspectives of the individuals involved in its creation, implementation, and execution. Steven D. Jellinek became the first Assistant Administrator for Toxic Substances at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and soon the Assistant Administrator for Pesticides and Toxic Substances. The position was expected to be challenging: TSCA was written with many procedural hurdles and the environmental Congressional committees were not eager to oversee its implementation. The law quickly became an “orphan” in Congress. Jellinek encountered many challenges in implementing the new law: there was no inventory rule and no classificatory system for chemicals; there were interagency politics that had to be negotiated; there was little statutorial guidance for prioritizing exiting chemicals, or even defining a chemical of concern; and there were no technologies of risk assessment or toxicity testing. From his perspective, a reformed TSCA should strive to reduce the hurdles on EPA action, and he also thinks it might be worth considering a premarket rather than a premanufacture review.
Jean Aitchison discusses how she first became involved in thesaurus development. Aitchison worked to complete three editions of English Electric Faceted Subject Classification for Engineering, between 1958 and 1961, and in March 1967 she began work on Thesaurofacet. She also worked to develop and improve the Bliss Association Classification system.
Thomas M. Aitchison began his career in information science at Courtaulds. After completing a Library Association correspondence course, he worked as a divisional librarian and information officer with the British Aircraft Corporation, and then as a member of the Aslib aircraft information group. He also developed a journal for the National Electronics Research Council. Later, he worked to mechanize Science Abstracts and organize the Direct Evaluation of Indexing Languages [DEVIL] project.
Robert W. Allington had an interest in electronics from a young age. During his adolescence, Allington developed his skills in electronics through building radios, among other things, and by working as a television repairman. Later, he worked as an intern at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory on the SAGE air defense computer; near the end of the internship he was diagnosed with polio. Eventually he became an entrepreneur and founded Instrumentation Specialties Company (Isco), which focused on separation and environmental instrumentation.
Hubert N. Alyea was an internationally-known popularizer of chemistry. His public demonstrations and academic lectures won him numerous awards and brought the beauty of chemistry to his students and interested laypeople alike.
Neal Amundson worked as a process control engineer for Exxon, then for Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. In 1947, he became a professor in the University of Minnestoa’s chemical engineering department. By 1951, at just age thirty-five, Amundson held the positions of department chair and professor; he worked on heat transfer, chromatography, and adsorption. In 1977, Amundson left the University of Minnesota and became the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston.
Paul S. Anderson, shortly after graduate school accepted a position as a researcher with Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories. Over the next thirty years, Anderson advanced through the ranks of Merck leadership, eventually becoming the vice president for chemistry at their West Point facilities. Then, in 1998, Anderson became the senior vice president of his department for the newly formed DuPont Pharmaceuticals.
Dr. Robert Armstrong discusses his early life in Nebraska and Arizona, his undergraduate and graduate studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his career in industry. Armstrong recalls his work on rubber vulcanization and his pioneering research on radical polymerization at the U.S. Rubber Company, then later at the North American Rayon Company and the Celanese Corporation. Armstrong describes his duties as he progressed up the corporate ladder and also outlines his involvement with the establishment of the Research Triangle Institute.
In this joint interview, Donald Green and Willard Asbury recount the early years at Standard Oil Development Company and the influence of Frank Howard and Eger Murphree. The arc process is discussed as well as the level of assistance obtained from IG Farben. Green and Asbury recall the IG research organization; the wartime pressures during the development of GR-S; and the problems at the Baton Rouge plant. Asbury tells of his visit to Germany with the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey and the political recriminations of the prewar cooperation between Standard Oil and IG Farben are recollected, as are visits to Germany in the 1930s and 1950s.
Alfred Bader discusses his early life in Vienna and his broad education, stemming from instruction in a Gymnasium, Queen’s University in Canada, and his graduate studies at Harvard. The interview continues with Bader's move to Milwaukee, his research with PPG, and the origin and growth of the Aldrich Chemical Company, including the merger with Sigma Chemical Company and the decision to go public. The interview concludes with Bader's comments on his art collection and family matters.
John C. Bailar, Jr. discusses his upbringing, during which he often helped his father with his chemical research. This, in turn, influenced Bailar to pursue a B.A. and M.A. in chemistry from the University of Colorado and later a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Michigan. Bailar reflects on his academic career at the University of Illinois, where he changed his focus to inorganic chemistry while he conducted research on isomerism and molecular rearrangements, and later on coordination compounds. He eventually began to advise graduate students, as well as to become involved with the American Chemical Society, in which he was elected as president in 1959.
William Bailey describes his upbringing in rural Minnesota, his early interests in science, his undergraduate studies in chemistry with Lee Irving Smith at the University of Minnesota, and his graduate work with C.S. “Speed” Marvel on polymer synthesis in Illinois. Bailey continues to reflect on his research and academic career, as a postdoctoral assistant at MIT, an instructor of organic and polymer chemistry at Wayne State University, and a research professor at the University of Maryland, where he spent the rest of his career. The interview concludes with an account of Bailey's long involvement with the American Chemical Society, including his presidency in 1975 and his thoughts on the current image of chemistry.
While a student, Baker began working for the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Chemical Abstracts Service as an office boy. Aside from a brief time as a chemist working with explosives at DuPont, Baker spent his entire career with the ACS and Chemical Abstracts Service. In 1946, Baker became assistant editor of Chemical Abstracts. In 1958, Baker became Director of Chemical Abstracts Service, a position he held until 1986. Baker was instrumental in developing an on-line system for Chemical Abstracts in the early 1980s.
Dexter F. Baker discusses his early life in the suburbs of Philadelphia during World War II. He was drafted into the U.S. Navy after graduating from high school and admitted into the Naval Academy Preparatory program. Later, he studied mechanical engineering at Lehigh University, developing an interest in turbines. Baker was drafted again, serving the U.S. Army during the Korean War in engineering research and development laboratories and working on high-speed, small-size gas turbine engines. Eventually, Baker resumed his career in industry and business, working in a variety of positions including sales, president of air products, and Chairman of the Board.
William O. Baker was raised on Maryland's eastern shore, where he developed an interest in organic and inorganic chemistry from his parents. In college, Baker pursued the field of physical chemistry for his graduate degree at Princeton University focusing on the dielectric properties of medium length chains. After graduating, he accepted a Bell Labs position as member of technical staff and began work with C. S. Fuller and J. H. Heiss on structures and properties of high polymeric substances. A majority of this interview centers on Baker's time at Bell Labs, the development of synthetic rubber, and Baker's many other accomplishments.
John D. Baldeschwieler grew up in Elizabeth, New Jersey and graduated from Cornell University with an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering. While attending the University of California, Berkeley for graduate school, Baldeschwieler was introduced to infrared spectroscopy. After faculty positions at Harvard and Stanford, Baldeschwieler worked in various government positions, including the deputy director position for the Office of Science and Technology, and the coordinator position for the Chemical Catalysis Program in the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Commission on Science and Technology. In 1981, Baldeschwieler undertook his first commercial endeavor with the creation of Vestar, Inc. Thus began his work on a string of entrepreneurial ventures, which has included Combion, Inc., Epic Therapeutics, Inc., GeneSoft, Inc., and many others. In 1999 and 2000, Baldeschwieler was responsible in part for the creation of the Athenaeum Fund and Pasadena Entretec; two organizations established to fund and support young entrepreneurs from Caltech.
David Baltimore recounts his early interest in biology, ultimately devoting his PhD thesis to the study of animal virology. To complete his thesis he moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to Rockefeller University to join Richard M. Franklin who was working with mengovirus. After graduating, Baltimore spent some time at the Salk Institute and then returned to MIT where he continued work on poliovirus and began work on vesicular stomatitis virus. He and his wife, Alice Huang, who at the time was a research associate in his lab, discovered that VSV carried an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase within the virus particle. This work provided the insight that led to his discovery of reverse transcriptase—the enzyme in retroviruses that transcribes DNA from RNA—and won Baltimore the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1975.
After being accepted to Stanford University, Craig R. Barrett chose to major in metallurgical engineering and continued on to receive his master’s and doctoral degrees at the institution. He then spent a year in the National Physical Laboratory in England as a postdoctoral fellow before returning to Stanford as an assistant professor. Frustrated with basic research, Barrett jumped at the chance to take a temporary leave of absence to join the Intel R&D department. In 1984, Barrett’s promotion to vice president signaled Intel’s commitment to the manufacturing division and coincided with the company’s shift from memory to microprocessor manufacturing. Barrett then described his career rise to senior vice president, executive vice president, and eventually to chief executive office and president.
Sherry Bartolucci describes her early introduction to business management at AT&T and explains her decision to join the Peace Corps in Peru. After gaining more experience in business, she became the Chief Administrative Officer at the Gordon E. and Betty I. Moore Foundation. As a member of the Management Committee, she helped design an “outcome-based” grantmaking strategy that retains the ideals of Gordon E. and Betty I. Moore while insisting on quantifiable progress from grantees. Bartolucci concludes the interview with reflections on her professional and life experiences which have culminated in her current position in the Moore Foundation.
Fred Basolo begins this interview by discussing his childhood in Coello, Illinois, and his elementary and high school education. He attended Southern Illinois University where he studied to be a chemistry teacher but his instructors encouraged him to attend graduate school in chemistry. At University of Illinois, he studied inorganic chemistry with John Bailar. After receiving his Ph.D., he worked at Rohm and Haas in Philadelphia for three years. He decided to return to academia and accepted a positions as professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University. His research interests have included kinetics and mechanisms, and metal carbonyls. Basolo describes the connections he made with Italian scientists and his American Chemical Society presidency and concludes by offering his opinion of how general and inorganic chemistry courses should be taught.
O. A. Battista was one of eight siblings born to a poor, uneducated laborer and a housewife; he proudly details his family's hard-working nature. Attending McGill University along with his younger brother, Battista earned a B.S. in chemistry while supporting his household by writing epigrams for the Saturday Evening Post. Upon graduation Battista obtained a research chemist position at American Viscose Corporation. He worked on the rubber program and other war-related projects until the end of the war. Later, his work at American Viscose and its predecessor, FMC, earned him over sixty-five patents, including patents on viscose molding, novel yarn, pure cellulose, and microcrystalline collagen. In the early 1960s, Battista realized the medical applications of microcrystalline collagen and obtained pharmaceutical backing from Alcon to license the substance as the patented hemostat Avitene. In 1974 Battista took early retirement from Avicon to start his own research institute and promote an Olympiad of Science that encourages and facilitates new product innovations. His institute created over fifty-five new products and publishes of Knowledge Magazine.
In this interview Arnold Beckman begins with his teenage experience as an industrial chemist at a local gas works in Bloomington, Illinois and the Keystone Iron and Steel Works. This is followed by reflections on his student days at the University of Illinois, with special emphasis on some of the faculty and students. The central portion of the interview considers Beckman as a student and faculty member at Caltech and includes his early experiences with instrumentation, patents, and serving as an expert witness. The interview continues with Dr. Beckman discussing the origin of the pH meter and DU spectrophotometer, and concludes with the beginning stages of manufacturing and sales, emphasizing the principles used to build National Technical Laboratories, the company that would become Beckman Instruments.
In this interview Dr. Arnold Beckman begins with the National Technical Laboratories in the late 1930s, and includes details on its policies and operations. He continues with the change from NTL to Beckman Instruments, and emphasizes the development of spectrophotometry instrumentation during the 1940s. Other projects, including mass spectrometers, Geiger counters, pocket electroscopes, and the oxygen analyzer, are also discussed. Following World War II Beckman describes his reinvolvement with Caltech. The interview concludes with Beckman talking about air pollution work in Los Angeles, the formation of Shockley Laboratories, and the future of the instrumentation industry.
Manson Benedict had an early enthusiasm for chemistry, which was promoted both by his father's work and his summer jobs with Calumet and Hecla Copper Company. He entered Cornell University as an undergraduate, but quickly became dissatisfied with his Cornell education. After a year at National Aniline benedict decided to enroll at the University of Chicago to obtain a broader liberal education during which he explored economics and socialism. He then went into in a graduate physical chemistry program at MIT and received a National Research Fellowship at Harvard. Benedict ultimately chose to work at Kellogg, where he developed the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation. He played a significant role in the Manhattan Project, and touches on his subsequent appointment to the Atomic Energy Commission. The concludes with his return to MIT to develop a nuclear engineering curriculum, the accomplishment of
which he is most proud.
O. Theodor Benfey was raised in Germany during the rise of the Third Reich, but traveled to England, where he was a student during the war, and then to the United States for a postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University. He developed an interest in physical organic chemistry and structure, and the history of chemistry, and recounts pursued a career as a professor of chemistry and history of science at Haverford, Earlham, and Guilford Colleges. Benfey also had a parallel career as a writer, translator, and editor; he provided details of the various translations he has published, and recalled his term as editor of Chemistry magazine during the interview. The interview concludes with his memories of his studies in Japan and China and his current interests.
Helen M. Berman was influenced to go into crystallography through a laboratory internship with Barbara W. Low, while studying at Barnard University. After receiving her doctorate at the University of Pittsburgh, Berman went to work for the Fox Chase Cancer Center, where she researched nucleic acid crystallography and drug nucleic acid interactions. Twenty years later, she moved to Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and expanded her program to include protein crystallography. Berman was convinced that archiving protein structures and studying their sequences would allow researchers to predict future protein structures, instead of relying on theoretical calculations. She worked with Walter C. Hamilton and Edgar Meyer to establish the Protein Databank (PDB) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. At the same time, Crysnet was developed to enable researchers to work on big calculations remotely, from another computer: Berman was the program’s prototype user. She currently manages the PDB and applies the most modern technology to keep it running smoothly.
Jerome A. Berson graduated from high school at fifteen and then rode a Good Humor tricycle to earn some money before beginning City College of New York, chosen primarily for economic reasons. He finished at City a semester early and began working on penicillin at Hoffmann-LaRoche. From there he was drafted into the U.S. Army, in which he worked as a medic in India until the end of World War II. Knowing he could not progress with only a bachelor's degree, Berson, with the help of the GI Bill, enrolled at Columbia University, where his Ph.D. mentor was William von Eggers Doering. Doering urged Berson to consider academia as a career and was instrumental in arranging for a postdoctoral fellowship for him with R.B. Woodward at Harvard. Berson credits Woodward and Doering with being two of his prime influences. Berson then went to the University of Southern California (USC) . Limited resources and manpower at USC caused him to shift his focus to physical organic chemistry. After thirteen years at USC Berson, by now a fully-fledged physical organic chemist, was recruited to the University of Wisconsin, where he stayed for “six of the happiest years of [his] life.” Thermal and carbocationic rearrangements, and the role of orbital symmetry in chemical reactions, were the focus of his laboratory during this period. While at Wisconsin, Berson had taken note of Erich Hückel's work, which with Hund's Rule provided continuing themes in his thinking and research. Yale University then recruited Berson. He believed that he had much yet to learn, and he found many teachers and colleagues at Yale and elsewhere. The Yale period included many new studies, especially on non-Kekulé molecules.
John H. Beynon was born in Ystalyfera, Wales, and grew up in a coal mining town. He attended a local university, the University of Wales at Swansea (Swansea University), during the early years of the Second World War. Graduating with a degree in physics, Beynon decided that the pursuit of a PhD was a waste of time and money and he committed himself fully to wartime work, including the development of weapons system used to track targets while a weapon was in motion. He spent much of his career in industry, principally working at the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), a British chemical company, at which he was put to work on building a mass spectrometer. He founded the Mass Spectrometry Unit at Swansea University, and was also a founding member of both the British Mass Spectrometry Society and the American Society of Mass Spectrometry. All through his long career Beynon trained a number of students (one of whom is Gareth Brenton; Brenton’s reflections on his mentor are recorded in the appendix to this transcript) and did much to advance the field of mass spectroscopy.
Klaus Biemannwas born and raised near Vienna, Austria. As pharmacy was the family profession, Biemann chose to study it at the University of Innsbruck. He soon developed an interest in organic chemistry, however, and shifted his focus, becoming the only graduate student in this field at that time at the University of Innsbruck. Upon finishing his degree, Biemann then received an appointment at the University of Innsbruck, in the context of which he discusses his experiences as well as the post-World War II university environment. After a summer at MIT working with George Buchi, Biemann decided that the American academic system offered more opportunities than the European one and he subsequently accepted a post-doctorate position at MIT. After two years he was appointed to a faculty position in the analytical division by Arthur C. Cope, the Head of the chemistry department. Early in his tenure at MIT, Biemann’s research interest shifted from natural product synthesis to the mass spectrometry of peptides and alkaloid structure. He explains how his early work expanded the perceived applications of early mass spectrometry.
Frank J. Biondi majored in chemical engineering at Lehigh University, and worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in the 1930s. After being in industry for a short period of time, he decided to pursue a graduate education at Columbia University. After completing his master’s degree in chemical engineering, he enrolled in the Ph.D. program and became involved in the Manhattan Project. Biondi worked on a gaseous diffusion program to separate uranium 235 from uranium ore, designing the diffusion barrier used for the atom bomb. After making his contribution to the Manhattan Project, Biondi returned to BTL work and focused on electronics, initially developing long-life cathodes used by the British during the war. He continued cathode work, becoming involved with the ASTM to standardize three nickel alloys for electronics industry electron tube cathodes. Biondi's later work focused on fuel cells, the electronics industry’s first dust-free white room, semiconductors used for satellites, and improvements in battery manufacture and design.
R. Byron Bird was born in Texas, but Bird’s family moved frequently, following Bird’s father, a professor of civil engineering. During high school in Washington, DC, Bird developed his interest in foreign languages, and wanted to pursue either language or music in college. However, his father pushed him towards a degree in chemical engineering. Bird completed two years of study at the University of Maryland before entering the U.S. Army to fight in World War II. When he left the Army, he resumed his studies after a brief hiatus in a biochemistry lab of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bird completed his degree at the University of Illinois, at Urbana. It was there that he decided he wanted to enter a Ph.D. program in chemistry, and he chose to study at the University of Wisconsin. While in graduate school, Bird conducted rigorous research under Joseph Hirschfelder, and went on to a post-doctoral, Fulbright grant for research in the Netherlands. Bird returned to the United States to take a teaching position in the chemistry department at Cornell University, and after a year there, accepted a position in the chemical engineering department at the University of Wisconsin. Before returning to Wisconsin, Bird spent a summer working for DuPont, where he was introduced to the subject of rheology.
Julius Blank graduated high school at the age of fifteen and began taking classes at the City College of New York while working various jobs. When Blank turned eighteen, he enlisted and was sent to Europe to serve until the end of World War II. When he came home he finished college with the aid of the GI Bill and received a degree in mechanical engineering. Blank worked as an engineer at Babcock and Wilcox Company in Ohio, and then moved to Goodyear Aircraft. After two years, he and his wife moved back to New York where Blank got a job at Western Electric. In 1956, Blank was asked to join Shockley Semiconductor in California. Blank met Gordon Moore at Shockley, and eventually joined Moore and six other Shockley colleagues to form Fairchild Semiconductor. Blank first worked on crystal growing and research and development at Fairchild, but later helped set up assembly plants overseas.
Konrad E. Bloch was born and raised in Neisse, Germany, and he studied at Technische Hochschule in Munich for his undergraduate degree. During a research assistantship in Davos, Switzerland, Bloch became aware of the cholesterol molecule for the first time. He also produced and published three papers that Columbia University later accepted as partial fulfillment for a Ph.D. in biochemistry, earned in 1938. Bloch describes his teaching and research in biochemistry at Columbia and later the University of Chicago, where he developed an interest in the mechanism of protein synthesis from amino acids. He won the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology with Feodor Lynen in 1964 for his work on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.
Elkan R. Blout attended DeWitt Clinton High School, in the Bronx, earning marks that were high enough to skip three grades. He was still too young to attend college when he graduated, so he enrolled in the Philips Exeter Academy. After a year at Exeter, Blout attended Princeton University, becoming one of only twelve Jewish students accepted in 1935. As a Jewish student, Blout struggled against discrimination from both the University and the students. In 1942, Blout received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Columbia University. He then accepted a fellowship at Harvard University, where he worked with Louis Feiser and R. B. Woodward. After a year, Edwin H. Land offered Blout a position at the Polaroid Company. At Polaroid, he helped develop the instant photographic process and the color translating microscope. At the same time, he received a research grant to study synthetic polypeptides, and established a spectroscopy laboratory at Children’s Hospital of Boston. In 1961, Blout left Polaroid for more academic pursuits at Harvard Medical School. In 1991, Blout became the senior science advisor for the Food and Drug Administration.
Roger S. Borovoy worked as counsel at both Fairchild Camera Instrument Corporation and Intel Corporation, placing him at the heart of the semiconductor revolution in America. He received his undergraduate degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and, after a short period of time at Chevron Research, Borovoy began to work as Patent Counsel at Fairchild Camera Instrument Corporation, meeting Gordon Moore. Borovoy quickly became entrenched in the burgeoning electronics industry and legal issues surrounding intellectual property and patents. After fighting legal battles with Motorola, and dealing with international licensing issues, he moved on to working for Intel in 1974.
Ray Boundy studied chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology where there was a strong interaction with the Dow Chemical Company. Before Boundy had completed his degree at Case he had met Herbert Dow who offered him a position in the Midland laboratories. Starting in the analytical laboratory, Ray Boundy moved to the productive physics group headed by John Grebe. After describing his involvement with early Dow projects, such as the seawater bromine process, sodium electrical conductors, electrolytic chlorine production and applications for ferric chloride, Boundy briefly reviews the work on styrene polymerization, monomer purity, and wartime production. At the end of hostilities in the European sector Boundy joined one of the teams of experts sent over to assess the German chemical industry. Postwar, Boundy had responsibility for plastics at Dow before his promotion to research director.
Raymond Boyer was born and raised in Ohio and he had an early interest in electricity. He received his undergraduate and graduate education at Case Institute of Technology. In discussing his career at the Dow Chemical Company, Boyer provides accounts of discoveries and innovations, especially involving polystyrene; several leading figures there, including Willard and H. H. Dow; and major organizational changes that occurred during his career.
Ronald Breslow grew up in Rahway, New Jersey, the son of a physician. Max Tishler, a family friend, helped to pique Breslow’s interest in chemistry. In high school, Breslow entered the Westinghouse Science Contest, which enabled him to meet like-minded teenagers. He entered Harvard University, graduating with his A.B. in chemistry in 1952, having attended chemistry courses taught by Louis Fieser and Paul Bartlett, and having conducted research with Gilbert Stork on the structure of cedrene. Breslow earned his Ph.D. in chemistry in 1955 for his work on magnamycin under R. B. Woodward. In 1956, Breslow joined the faculty of Columbia University, where he has worked on a variety of subjects, including thiamine, cyclopropenyl cation, cyclodextrins, and electron transfer.
Leo Brewer became interested in chemistry through the influence of a high-school chemistry teacher in Los Angeles. He attended Caltech and,.after receiving his B.S. in 1940, Linus C. Pauling advised him to begin his graduate work at the University of California at Berkeley, where he studied under Axel R. Olsen. Upon receiving his Ph.D., Brewer immediately joined the Manhattan Project as a research associate. Brewer’s job was to use models in the periodic table to determine the worst properties of plutonium. He tested refractory materials, such as nitrites, carbides, lanthanides, actinides, sulfites, sulfides, and phosphides, and determined that cerium sulfide would serve as the best model (later, Brewer predicted the electronic configuration of all the actinides). His research for the Manhattan Project found direct application at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and was later published as part of the Manhattan Project Technical Series. In 1946, Brewer joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. During his career at Berkeley, Brewer worked in many fields, including organic chemistry, ceramics, astrochemistry, and even geology. Within these areas, he applied his thermodynamic research, including studying high-temperature molecules present in comets and stars, and the distribution of elements in the earth’s gravitational field.
Herbert C. Brown studied at Crane Junior College, where he became fascinated by chemistry and its history; when Crane closed down, Brown was among the students invited to work in Nicholas D. Cheronis' Synthetical Laboratories, where he earned enough to enroll in a University of Chicago correspondence course on qualitative analysis and supplemented his education by working with Fales's Quantitative Analysis. Brown continued his studies and lab work at Wright Junior College and the University of Chicago. During his career he worked at the University of Chicago, Wayne State University, and later Purdue University; during the interview he detailed his studies on steric effects, boranes, and borohydride synthesis. Brown worked for the National Defense Research Committee during Worald War II, which included research on the volatile compounds of uranium, uranium borohydride production and testing, sodium trimethoxyborohydride production, and sodium borohydride development.
David R. Bryant was one of seven children and grew up in North Carolina. He began working at age ten, and held various jobs until he earned a scholarship to Wake Forest University. Influenced by his high school science teacher, Bryant double-majored in chemistry and math. After receiving his B.S. in 1958, Bryant decided to attend graduate school at Duke University. Focusing on organic chemistry, he worked on the conversion of organic compounds into dianions under Charlie Hauser. Bryant earned his Ph.D. in 1961 and immediately took a job with Union Carbide Corporation. He worked on developing a method of producing vinyl acetate without halide, and later worked with benzyl acetate, acrylic acid, and rhodium triphenylphosphite in the Oxo process.
Gordon A. Cain received his undergraduate education at Louisiana State University during the Great Depression. After graduation, his first jobs were in the chemical industry, during which he applied for and received first patents. Cain enlisted during World War II as a captain and served in the Pacific with an Army heavy mortar company. After the war he worked in scientific intelligence in Germany. Returning to the United States, Cain shifted the direction of his career away from chemical engineering and into management, consulting and ownership of various chemical and high technology concerns (Cain was the head of Vista, Cain Chemical, and the Sterling Group).
Vincent Calarco was an ambitious and hard-working student who enjoyed chemistry and had a firm desire to attend college. After graduation from New York High School, Calarco attended Polytechnic University of New York, receiving his B.S. in chemical engineering in 1963. While excelling in the intense environment at Polytechnic University, Calarco worked as a draftsman for Syska and Hennessey during the summers. In the summer of 1962, he accepted an internship at Proctor & Gamble’s Port Ivory facility on Staten Island. From 1966 to 1968, Calarco served in the U.S. Army at the Ballistics Research Laboratory in Aberdeen, Maryland. In 1979, he became President of Uniroyal at the age of thirty-six. He set high-standards for employees at Uniroyal and enjoyed the challenges of his position. In 1985 Calarco left Uniroyal and became the CEO of Crompton & Knowles (Crompton Corporation).
Dennis A. Carson attended Stuyvesant High School, a well-known school with a science-based curriculum. Upon graduating in 1962, he decided to matriculate at Haverford College, hoping to balance his science background with a degree in the liberal arts. He earned a B.A. in history and returned to New York City to attend Columbia University’s medical school, where he worked in immunologist Elliott F. Osserman’s lab experimenting with tissue cultures. After earning his M.D., Carson worked at the National Institutes of Health under Henry Metzger radiolabeling immunoglobulins and assigning affinity labels. In 1974, Carson left to work in Jay Seegmiller’s lab at the University of California, San Diego, researching ADA deficiency’s effect on the immune system. As an assistant member of the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, he spent his time developing, synthesizing, manufacturing, and running trials for Leustatin, a drug for hairy cell leukemia that was approved in 1993. While at Scripps, Carson co-founded Vical a biotech company that develops DNA vaccines. Over the next decade, he founded other drug-development companies such as Triangle Pharmaceuticals, Dynamax Inc., and Salmedix. When Jay Seegmiller retired from UCSD’s Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging in 1990, Carson took his place as director—splitting his time between research and fund-raising. He left in 2003 to head Moores UCSD Cancer Research Center, where he has two drugs in development.
Sally Chapman’s interest in science was fostered both by her “tinkerer” father and by the nationwide interest in innovative science education that occurred after Sputnik. She attended Smith College and worked for the Quaker Chemical Corporation, where she assisted technicians and experienced basic, day-to-day activities in a lab. Realizing she was not ready for graduate school as she completed undergraduate work at Smith, Chapman became a computer programmer at Metropolitan Life Insurance Company in New York. After her stint in New York, she pursued graduate school, choosing Yale University, where she worked with Raymond Suplinskas on Hot Atom Chemistry. After two postdoctoral positions, Chapman accepted a position at Barnard College. During the interview Chapman talked about her work in the community of women in chemistry, which has included the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists (COACh), advising and mentoring students, and various other activities.
Stuart Churchill attended the University of Michigan, where he was quite active in the mathematics department as well as in chemical engineering. After working in industry for five years, at Shell Oil and Frontier Chemical, he returned to Michigan for graduate school. There he began both his extensive research on heat transfer, natural convection, and combustion, as well as his career in teaching. After earning his Ph.D. and a position on Michigan's faculty, he began work on several military projects in the nuclear field. In addition, he served on the National Council of and as president of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. After acquiring increasing administrative responsibilities as chairman of the department, he chose to move to the University of Pennsylvania to return his focus to research and teaching.
W. H. Clark grew up in Big Stone Gap, Virginia, with an early interest in journalism. He decided to major in industrial engineering at North Carolina State University, where he became interested in technical selling. His first job was at Standard Oil of Ohio as a sales engineer, later moving to Nalco Chemical Company, where he spent the rest of his career.
Vincent J. Coates was too young to join the military at the start of World War II, so he got a job filing machine parts and began attending the Bridgeport Engineering Institute. He later applied the knowledge he had gained at the Institute on the Navy’s Officer Candidate School exam, earning him the highest score in Connecticut. At the behest of his mother, Coates attended Yale University, majoring in mechanical engineering. After a short tour in the Navy, Coates took a job at Chance-Vought Aircraft. In 1948, he was hired at Perkin-Elmer Corporation; when John U. White left suddenly in 1949, the responsibility for their project, the Model 21, fell completely on Coates’s shoulders. After the original Model 21 became a proven success, he began developing accessories for the instrument, such as the Prism Interchange Unit, to expand its potential market. Coates decided to leave Perkin-Elmer after the president decided to shut down Coates’s field-emission scanning electron microscopes (FESEM) project. With Len Welter, he started the Coates & Welter Instrument Company to produce the world’s first commercial FESEMs. Later, his Microspot Film-Thickness-Measurement Systems became essential for the manufacture of advanced microchips, and his company became extremely successful as a result..
Mildred Cohn advanced through her early schooling rapidly, being prepared to enter college by age fourteen. She matriculated at Hunter College, though facing difficulties as a woman in the sciences. She moved on to graduate school at Columbia, where, after working for a short time at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, she began her work with isotopes in Harold Urey's lab. She worked with du Vigneaud at George Washington and Cornell universities and at the Cori's lab at Washington University in St. Louis. Cohn spent much of her career at the University of Pennsylvania.
Charles N. Cole attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to pursue his degree. His interest in viruses led him to switch from Harvey F. Lodish’s Laboratory to the laboratory of David Baltimore (Cole’s research involved the polio virus and the role of defective interfering particles). This oral history also serves to complement CHF's oral history with David Baltimore.
Paul M. Cook was young when he developed an interest in chemistry, going so far as to build a laboratory in the basement of his parents’ house. After graduating from high school in 1941, he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he studied chemical engineering with Warren K. Lewis. In 1943, he put his education on hold and enlisted in the Army. While enlisted, he enrolled in the Army Specialized Training Program, through which he attended Stanford University for two terms, studying mechanical engineering. In 1946, Cook left the Army and worked for Submarine Signal in Boston; he then returned to MIT, where he completed his degree in 1947. After graduation, Cook started the Warren Wire Company with his older brother. A year later, Cook left the fledgling company to join the Stanford Research Institute as a chemical engineer. There he worked on a number of projects, including the growth of the algae Chlorella and the potential uses of waste fission products. In 1951, Cook founded the Sequoia Process Corporation. Five years later, he left Sequoia to found Raychem Corporation, which opened in 1957.
Donald J. Cram grew up in Vermont, Florida, and New York, and attended Rollins College. He undertook his graduate work at the University of Nebraska with Norman Cromwell, which led him to work at Merck during World War II; he did his doctoral work at Harvard. In 1947 he took a position at the University of California, Los Angeles, and remained at the institution in the chemistry department for over thirty years. Cram's major research effort in the late 1970s on guest-host chemistry led to his sharing the Nobel Prize in 1987.
Carlos A. Cuadra, a pioneer in the field of information sciences, continued his education while serving in the Navy during World War II. He did his undergraduate and graduate work in psychology at the University of California, Berkeley and wrote his dissertation on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. He began to work for RAND in the System Development Division, which split off and became System Development Corporation (SDC). He learned about computers and programming while he was working on intelligence project 466L for the Air Force and was made head of the Intelligence Systems Branch of SDC, working on various information systems such as MEDLARS II, MEDLINE, ORBIT, and ELHILL. He started the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. Cuadra briefly worked as a consultant for the National Academy of Science’s Committee on Scientific and Technical Information (COSATI), and was later appointed to the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS). Within SDC, Cuadra created SDC Search Service, one of the first online retrieval services.
Hugh A. D’Andrade began his career in corporate law as General Attorney for the Ciba-Geigy Corporation in 1968. By 1977, he had risen through the ranks to become Vice President of Administration and Counsel of the Pharmaceuticals Division. In 1981, he joined Schering-Plough Corporation as Senior Vice-President of Administration. During D’Andrade’s first years with Schering, the company worked with Cetus Corporation on antibiotic screening, and also worked with Biogen on interferon and erythropoietin. D’Andrade worked on the development side of the interferon project and was instrumental in patent negotiations with Roche.
William H. Davidow obtained his M.S. in electrical engineering at Dartmouth College, after which Davidow decided to pursue science over business and enrolled in the California Institute of Technology. After receiving his M.S. at Caltech and his Ph.D. at Stanford University, Davidow worked at General Electric on peripheral devices. He realized that his talent was in marketing rather than science, and moved on to marketing positions. After working at Hewlett-Packard and Signetics Memory Systems, Davidow moved to Intel and became responsible for marketing of its microprocessor development systems. Eventually he was charged with running the microprocessor division, and embarked on a massive marketing campaign called “Operation Crush.” After the success of Operation Crush Davidow moved to work in Intel’s marketing and sales division; this is the time period during which increasing Japanese competition forced Intel to withdraw from the memory business and focus of microprocessors.
Melvin S. Day grew up during the Depression and often worked in his father’s oil company after school to help ends meet. Day attended Bates College as a chemistry major, receiving his BA in 1943. After graduation, Day immediately accepted a position with Metal Hydrides, Inc. in Beverly, Massachusetts. Then he enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1944. Recognizing Day’s background in chemistry, the Army sent him to serve at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Corps of Engineers for the Manhattan Project. In 1946, Day was assigned to work for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) under Major Alberto Thompson, reviewing newly declassified documents from the Manhattan Project. In 1958, Day transferred to AEC headquarters in Washington, D.C. to be the Director of the Technical Information Office. He then joined the newly established National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1960, and developed the plans for NASA’s information program. In 1970, Day began working for the National Science Foundation (NSF); there he worked on the funding end of developing information systems. He left NSF in 1972 and became the Deputy Director of the National Library of Medicine (NLM); there he helped build the Lister Hill Center and to develop MEDLARS and MEDLINE as online systems.
Allen G. Debus grew up in Evanston, a suburb to the north of Chicago, where he attended public schools. He earned a BS in chemistry, with almost enough credits for a second major in history.
After working at Abbott Laboratories for about five years, Debus decided to seek a Ph.D. in the history of science, at Harvard University under I. Bernard Cohen. He accepted an assistant professorship University of Chicago and became the first director of the Morris Fishbein Center for the Study of the History of Science and Medicine. Debus wanted to study the place of chemistry in the scientific revolution with materials available to all; to that end he has a large collection of rare books from this time period, a collection he began in the early 1940’s. He says that he has about 650 such books, the earliest from 1501.
Claude K. Deischer received his undergraduate education at Kutztown State and Muhlenberg and went on to graduate and postgraduate research at the University of Pennsylvania. He had an interest in the history of science and he played a part in starting Chymia. He also contributed much to the American Chemical Society and the Moravian Church.
In his oral history Michael J. Dewar describes his education and long career in chemistry, both in academia and industry. He discusses his research and colleagues at Courtalds, Ltd., his learning physical chemistry, his work on resonance theory and molecular orbital theory, and his theoretical publications at that time. He also describes his associations with H. Christopher Longuet-Higgins, Charles A. Coulson, and Jack Roberts.
The central portion of Carl Djerassi's interview covers his life as a student at the University of Wisconsin, followed by research work at Ciba, a faculty position at Wayne State University, and steroid research at Syntex in Mexico City. The interview continues with a move to Stanford University, and expands on Djerassi's dual positions in business and academe, concluding with personal views on writing scientific and non-scientific literature, interest in the arts, and a number of ways in which chemistry has changed during his career.
In his oral history William von Eggers Doering describes his introduction to chemistry and the his long academic career working at several top tier univerisites. He also discusses his environmental work, industrial consultancy, and the conflicting demands of an academic career.
Edward Donley's oral history describes his early life, education, and long career at Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. His experiences highlight the growth of that company from a family business to the major corporation that it is today.
Paul Doty's oral history describes his life and work in organic chemistry, ranging from an early interest in chemistry, to graduate work with polymers, to his eventual work on denaturation of proteins. Additionally, the interview covers Doty's activism with regard to both national and academic policies.
Ronald Duarte and Gordon Moore attended the same grammar school, although Moore was a year older than Duarte and they did not take any classes together. Duarte recalls fond memories of Moore's mother, and memories of Moore's two brothers. Duarte and Moore kept in touch for a time after Moore moved to Redwood City, California, from Pescadero, and now they see each other when Moore visits Pescadero.
Dubois describes how he studied chemistry and medicine during the German invasion of France and elucidates his active roles in the French Resistance and in post-War French politics. Next, Dubois discusses how he came to be an essential figure in the creation of the University of Saarland. He describes his work as head of IUPAC's (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Committee on Machine Documentation, the creation of CEDOCAR (Centre de Documentation de l'armement), and his creation of the Bureau of Scientific Information (BIS). In conclusion, Dubois discusses the successes and failures of various information systems in France.
Nathalie Dusoulier recounts how she started working in information science from her background in pharmacology. She then speaks about her employment at Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). She describes the number of different forms her career at CNRS took, from indexing articles to directing the biology and human science sections of CNRS's publication, Bulletin Signalétique.
Elizabeth Dyer's oral history covers her childhood and early interest in chemistry, as well as her graduate years at Harvard and long career at the University of Delaware. Additionally, she discusses how important teaching has been in her life and her work in polymers.
Sidney Edelstein's oral history begins with his childhood in Tennessee and follows his life all the way through the formation and success of Dexter Chemical Corporation. In his interview he discusses the major world events he faced, discrimination because of religion, and his philanthropic work.
Hubert Eleuterio's oral history describes his interest in science from an early age, and the events that led him to go to graduate school for Chemistry. He chronicles his long career at DuPont in Delaware, his work with the Atomic Energy Commission, and his activities after his retirement.
Alber Eschenmoser begins his oral history with a discussion of his childhood and path to the field of organic chemistry. He discusses his career and how ETH collaborated with Robert B. Woodward's Harvard research group on the B12 project, and in 1972 they announced the success of the vitamin B12 synthesis. Eschenmoser concludes the interview with a discussion of research funding, his professional recognition, and the ramifications of the vitamin B12 synthesis.
Thomas E. Everhart's oral history begins with a discussion of his work with the scanning electron microscope, his work both at University of California, Berkeley and at Westinghouse Central Research Labs, and his collaboration with Andy Grove. Throughout the oral history, Everhart talks about Gordon E. Moore and Moore's contributions to the electronics world, including Moore's Law and predictions that Moore made regarding integrated circuits. Everhart also describes the process of interviewing for the position of president at the Caltech and expounds on his time as president, which provided opportunities for institutional growth and entrepreneurship
This interview with James R. Fair begins with a discussion of Fair's childhood in the Midwest. It covers his graduate career, his work during World War II and his long career with Monsanto.
Frank H. Field was raised in Cliffside Park, New Jersey, by an aunt, an uncle, and a grandmother. He entered Duke University, placing a year ahead in chemistry, but had very little money. To meet his expenses he worked in the school dining hall and graded math papers. He continued on at Duke for his graduate education and worked on using fluorocarbons as hydraulic fluids to replace hydrocarbons on warships. He then took a position at the University of Texas and began his mass spectrometry career. He worked first on measuring the ionization potential of cyclopropane. Field left the University of Texas to work with Joe Franklin at Humble Oil, and then after time at Esso, he was recruited by Rockefeller University as a full professor. He shifted into biochemical mass spectroscopy to be more in keeping with the biomedical orientation of Rockefeller. He built the second Californium-252 mass spectrometer in the world. A talk in Bordeaux, France, excited his enthusiasm for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and he persuaded his postdoc, Brian Chait, to build one.
Bernard Fields begins the interview with a discussion of his early years, his undergraduate career, and his fascination with virology and microbiology. Fields became Chairman of the Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Department at Harvard in 1982, ending his extensive research in infectious diseases just as AIDS hit the world scene. Fields concludes the interview with a discussion of the future of biological research, developing working relationships with students, and his personal battle with pancreatic cancer.
Robert E. Finnegan details his work in instrumentation and engineering, starting at the US Naval Academy and continuing in goverment and industrial work through the rest of his career.
James A. Fisher begins the interview with a description of his family and early years in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. After graduating early from Yale University because of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Fisher secured a position in a smelter plant making aluminum for warplanes at Alcoa Inc. In 1945, Fisher left Alcoa to work for his father, Chester G. Fisher, at the family business, Fisher Scientific International Inc. After the death of his father, Fisher was instrumental in the creation of the Fisher Museum, which was used to display the Fisher Collection, and the Pasteur Room, which was dedicated to the achievements of Louis Pasteur.
In his oral history Eugene Flath describes his childhood, his education, and his career at Fairchild and Intel. He discusses his decision to leave Fairchild and the culture of both companies and those he worked with there.
In this interview, Karl Folkers first talks about his family and his early exposure to science. He then describes some of his experiences as an undergraduate at the University of Illinois, as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, and as a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University. This is followed by a long discussion of his years at Merck, and includes his research on vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, his work on penicillin, the structure of research at Merck, and comments on various co-workers and administrators.
During his twenty-one year career at the University of London, Foskett became director of the University Library and Goldsmiths’ Librarian. In his interview, Foskett next discusses the formation of the Classification Research Group [CRG] to address the need for new ways to classify scientific literature. Foskett has been a member since CRG’s formation, and Foskett developed faceted classification schemes for education and safety and health that are still in use.
He received his B.A. in chemistry in 1946 and his M.A. in chemistry in 1949, both from the University of British Columbia. Francis married shortly after, and he and his wife moved to Iowa, where he continued his studies at the University of Iowa, obtaining a Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1953. Francis accepted a position with Procter & Gamble in 1952. His first work there involved research on detergents and skin penetration. Procter & Gamble then moved Francis into hair research. Finally, Francis moved to the dental section, where he became involved with fluoride research.
Arnold Frankel attended City College, enrolling in the chemical engineering curriculum and receiving his B.S. in 1942. While at City College, he met Seymour Mann, who later became his business partner. After graduation, Frankel accepted a position with the U.S. Rubber Company, working at a TNT plant. Soon thereafter, he moved to Publicker Industries, where he did pilot plant work. He also encouraged Mann to join Publicker. They later formed Aceto Chemical, Inc., and exported a variety of chemicals. Frankel is joined in the second interview by his wife, Miriam Frankel, and they discuss the difficulties of beginning a business and a family at the same time.
John E. Franz contrasts his studies in physical organic chemistry with his training in practical synthetic organic chemistry at Illinois. He also details his discovery of glyphosate, a natural plant growth inhibitor that forms the active ingredient in Roundup, an environmentally friendly herbicide that has become one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. He describes the aftereffects of his discovery—the reactions of Monsanto and other companies, and the steps involved in commercial production of Roundup. Franz then examines his later work to understand amine and phosphine compounds as well as plant growth inhibitors
After completing her B.S. in chemistry, Helen M. Free first researched assays of antibiotics before moving to dry reagent test systems. Working with tablets, Free helped develop tests to detect abnormal levels of bilirubin, glucose, ketone, and protein in urine. When Bayer Corporation acquired Miles Laboratories, Free stayed with the company, moving into the Growth and Development Department, then becoming Director of Specialty Test Systems. Free formally retired in 1982. She served as president of the American Chemical Society in 1993.
Dov Frohman discusses his career, starting with Graduate school in the US, his position at Fairchild, and his job at Intel. He proceeds to discuss the creation of Intel Israel and his role in the company.
Dr. Fuller enlivens the interview with recollections of Harkins and Julius Stieglitz. Appointment as a research chemist under R. R. Williams at Bell Laboratories introduces Calvin Fuller to the infant science of synthetic polymers and to xray crystallography. World War II sees Fuller in Washington, D.C., heading polymer chemistry research as part of the synthetic rubber program. On return to Bell Laboratories after the war, Fuller decides to move to solid state chemistry and describes his work on semiconductors, leading to the development of the photovoltaic cell.
Millard G. Gamble capped his 39-year career in sales and marketing of fibers at E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company as the vice president of the Textile Fibers Department. He talks about his post-graduation experiences working for the United States Department of Agriculture and as an officer with the United States Navy. Gamble reflects on joining DuPont in 1945 and his sales experience in the Rayon (later named Textile Fibers) Department.
Eugene Garfield describes his interest in the West, his first jobs in Colorado and California, and his brief military career, injury and subsequent medical discharge. Garfield continues by discussing his undergraduate degree in chemistry, the influence of his first ACS meeting and the Division of Chemical Literature on his life's work. He also talks about his participation in the Welch Medical Library project.
Eugene Garfield begins the interview with a discussion of The Johns Hopkins University Welch Library indexing project. Garfield joined this project in 1951, during which he became involved in machine methods for indexing and searching literature. He worked on automating Current List of Medical Literature and experimented with punched cards and zato coding. He discusses his relationship with Sanford V. Larkey, and his decision to attended library school at Columbia University. After graduating, Garfield joined Smith, Kline & French as a consultant. He eventually set up his own company, DocuMation, Inc., and worked on many projects, including a Genetics Citation Index for the NIH and Management's DocuMation Preview.
William H. Gauvin describes his education at McGill University, which culminated in both wartime work on RDX as well as several early electrochemistry papers. He next recounts his employment with Frank W. Horner Ltd. and the initiation and development of his lifelong spray drying work.
Louis A. Girifalco studied applied science at the University of Cincinnati, and did his Ph.D. research on the adhesion of ice to surfaces. The surface science thesis research naturally evolved into solid state physics when Girifalco began work for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which eventually became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. During his career Girifalco met Robert Maddin, which ultimately led an offer of a faculty position for Girifalco at the University of Pennsylvania. At Penn, Girifalco worked in the metallurgical engineering department and reflected upon the creation of the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LSRM), as well as the funding process within LRSM. Fundamentally an interdisciplinary research institute, Girifalco spent time as director of LRSM and discussed his views on the evolution of the academic science research system and on the Nano/Bio Interface Center and other current interdisciplinary research institutes.
After completing his training, Goggin first worked on setting up testing procedures for new polymer electrical insulators. While an employee with Dow, Goggin received a patent for a cording stretching apparatus. Goggin's work in Dow's Plastics Division coincided with the rise of plastics in the world market, especially during World War II. He rose steadily through the company, remaining an employee with Dow for his entire career. He retired as Chairman of the Board of Dow Corning Corporation in 1976.
Golde's experience in clinical pathology at NIH steered him into hematologic research at UCSF in Martin J. Cline's laboratory. While at UCSF, Golde met several influential scientists who first sparked his interest in hormones. In 1974, Golde left UCSF for the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he continues his affiliation today as Professor of Medicine, Emeritus. Throughout most of the 1970s, Golde's major field of research was in colony-stimulating factors.
James M. Goldey chronicles his involvement with the electronics industry and his career at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. He describes his interaction with William B. Shockley, Julius Molnar, Jack Moll, and Ian M. Ross. Goldey continues the interview by describing his work assignments at Bell Labs, along with his involvement with the Nike-X missile, silicon transistors, integrated circuit development, and hybrid circuits.
Mary Good received her Ph.D. in 1955, and accepted a position at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Her early work included iodine and sulfur chemistry and managing the radiochemistry laboratory. Good discusses her extensive involvement in the American Chemical Society, including her time as chairman of the board and later as president. In 1980, Good was appointed to the National Science Board by President Carter, and was reappointed by President Reagan.
George Govier received his Sc.D. in chemical engineering in 1949. In 1948, Govier became the head of the University of Alberta's Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and was instrumental in developing the program there. Eleven years later, he accepted the position of dean of the Faculty of Engineering, a position which he held until his departure from the University of Alberta. Govier then became the chairman of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, an organization in which he had been active since 1948.
Green and Asbury recall the IG research organization. The wartime pressures during the development of GR-S, and the problems at the Baton Rouge plant are discussed by Green, while Asbury tells of his visit to Germany with the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey. The political recriminations of the prewar cooperation between Standard Oil and IG Farben are recollected as are visits to Germany in the 1930s and 1950s. The interview ends with a survey of the postwar move into chemicals, the Ziegler process and the future of the oil and petrochemical industries.
Greer studied chemistry at the small Grove City College, but with one year at Carnegie Institute of Technology, and then continued further studies in chemical engineering at Case. The years up to the outbreak of World War II were spent with Union Carbide, working on the early development of petrochemicals. Greer then moved to Washington, D.C., to join the War Production Board, but soon after transferred to the Office of the Rubber Director where he played an important role in process development and product quality of the butadiene-styrene rubber, GR-S.
After the war, Gregory simultaneously gained both a Bachelor's degree at Princeton University and a Master's degree at Harvard University. Then in 1949, he began his career at the Rohm and Haas Company by conducting internal auditing in three plants. He then ran Rohm and Haas' agricultural-chemical operations in England before becoming Director of European Operations.
Andrew Grove studied fluid dynamics with Andreas Acrivos at the University of California, Berkeley, publishing four papers from a doctoral thesis. He also studied solid state physics and became employed by Fairchild Semiconductor. Grove cites Gordon E. Moore as a decisive factor in accepting the position. Grove had a close relationship to Moore at both Fairchild and Intel Corporation. The combination of personalities of Fairchild Semiconductor executives contributed to its success, a pattern which emerged in Intel Corporation as well after its founding by Grove, Gordon Moore, and Robert Noyce.
In 1947 Clifford and Kathryn Hach started the Hach Chemical and Oxygen Company, which eventually became Hach Company, one of the most innovative, influential, and well-known companies in the world. Hach-Darrow relays her thoughts on and her memories of the key events surrounding the start of the company, the creation of the Hach Model 5B Hardness Test Kit, the decision to enter the water testing market, the incorporation of the company in 1951, and the importance and need for instrumentation. Moreover, Hach-Darrow discusses the company's initial public offering in 1968, innovation, the company's international pursuits, Bruce J. Hach's involvement with the company, and the importance of quality control and customer service standards.
Norman Hackerman recounts his seven years at Johns Hopkins University, where he received both his bachelor's and Ph.D. degrees and developed interests in philosophy and psychology as well as in physical chemistry. remarks upon the difficulties the university encountered due to the Depression, and its effects upon laboratory equipment and research. He next describes his experiences teaching at Loyola College and consulting for the Colloid Corporation, his job with the Coast Guard at the Federal Lighthouse Service, his years at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and his work on the Manhattan District Project. The final portion of the interview briefly summarizes his early teaching background at the University of Texas, his consulting work for the Lone Star Gas Company, and his creation of the Corrosion Research Laboratory (now the Balcones Research Center).
Norman Hackerman begins his second interview by describing his work after coming to the University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemistry and starting the Corrosion Research Laboratory [currently the J. J. Pickle Research Center]. He discusses the physical chemistry textbook for premed students he wrote with Frederick Matsen and Jack Myers. He also recalls the events which led to his becoming chairman of the department after only seven years, his reorganization of the department, and characteristics of the department’s faculty at that time.
Norman Hackerman’s third interview begins by reviewing the origins of his association with The Electrochemical Society [ECS], which was related to his interest in the oxygen electrode as a student. He recalls his first paper, presented at an ECS conference and published in the Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society, and the first colleagues he met at this ECS meeting. He next describes the character of The ECS at that time, comparing it with the American Chemical Society [ACS], as well as the origins of the society’s journal and his involvement in publication and editorial activities.
After graduating from Johns Hopkins with a Ph.D. in chemistry, Norman Hackerman became a steady participant of the Gordon Research Conferences [GRC]—particularly the Corrosion Conference, which he chaired in 1950. Hackerman recalls that the early conferences were helpful to his scientific research, and that the atmosphere was informal and interactive. He also explains that as the numbers of attendees, disciplines, and locations of the conferences increased, the conference atmosphere became a more formal, lecture-type setting. Hackerman discusses some of the activities of the GRC board of trustees, on which he served as a member from 1970 to 1973.
Vladimir Haensel studied engineering at Northwestern, receiving his B.S. in 1935. He earned a scholarship for graduate school at MIT, where he studied polymerization under Edwin R. Gilliland. After earning his M.S. in chemical engineering in 1937, Haensel took a permanent position at Universal Oil Products and helped set up a high-pressure laboratory (funded by UOP) at Northwestern. During this time, Haensel also earned his Ph.D. in chemistry from Northwestern, writing a thesis on the decomposition of cyclohexane. In the 1940s and 1950s, Haensel moved into research management. He was also integral in UOP’s development of the Platforming process.
William E. Hanford attended the University of Illinois and studied with Roger Adams. He worked on various problems in the laboratory, and got to know many members of the department, including Carl Marvel, Reynold Fuson, and Ralph Shriner. After earning his Ph.D. in 1935, he took a job with DuPont, working in Experimental Station. He discusses how work on such household items as Teflon, Glim, and Head and Shoulders led to his induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
While still at Princeton, Hugh Taylor involved N. Bruce Hannay in the Manhattan Project, and after receiving his Ph.D. in 1944, Hannay took a job with Bell Laboratories, where he continued that work. Once the war ended, Hannay began research on the mechanisms of thermionic emission from oxide cathodes. The invention of the transistor in 1947 led him to focus on silicon, which was deemed more useful in semiconductor research than single crystals of germanium. This work resulted in Hannay's development of a mass spectrograph to analyze solids.
The interview begins with N. Bruce Hannay discussing the origins of his interest in electrochemistry and his awareness of The Electrochemical Society as an ideal organization for discussions and publications on topics related to solid state chemistry. Hannay helped to further the Society's interest in solid state and corrosion work while he had responsibility for electrochemistry at Bell Labs. Throughout the interview, he comments on positive aspects of the Society's internal operations; its relations with other scientific organizations and companies, including the American Chemical Society, GE, and Bell Labs; and the influence of colleagues such as R.M. Burns and Charles Tobias.
Upon completing his thesis on externally shunted Josephson Junctions, Paul Hansma accepted a faculty position at the University of California at Santa Barbara and worked on squeezable electron tunneling junctions. It was at that time Hansma heard a lecture by Gerd Binnig on a new technique called scanning tunneling microscopy [STM]. Frustrated by the lengthy time requirements to set up each trial, Hansma began to move away from ultra-high vacuum equipment into STMs that would function in air and liquids. Hansma divided the labor between graduate students, technician Barney Drake, and himself and began building STMs, including the first one to achieve atomic resolution in water. Then, a conference at Cancun, Mexico served as a major impetus for information exchange and helped many groups to achieve atomic resolution. Soon after, at the request of colleague, Calvin Quate, Hansma reviewed a paper on atomic force microscopy [AFM]. The concept intrigued Hansma and he began to shift his research from STM to AFM.
After briefly describing his graduate work at the University of Illinois and a summer job at Du Pont, Allan Hay begins the story of his career at General Electric. There, after only a very short time, he was able to oxidize xylenol to synthesize PPO. Hay focuses on the practical applications as well as the chemical aspects of the progress that occurred in plastics research (including the developments of Noryl and Ultem) during his career as both a research chemist and a manager at G.E. He concludes with a bit of insight into what lies ahead in polymer research and development.
Oliver Hayden served in clinical laboratories and other assignments in the U.S. Army Sanitation Corps during World War I. He joined the Fisk Rubber Company, where he gained experience in rubber compounding and quality control. Hayden then moved to the Organic Chemicals Department of Du Pont, where he worked in screening chemicals for use in the rubber industry, the development of neoprene, and became Manager of the Rubber Laboratory.
Robert Hayes graduated from UCLA in 1947 with a B.A. in mathematics, and afterwards was drafted into the Navy. He recounts his acceptance into the Navy’s V-12 program, and the courses he took for that program at the University of Colorado at Boulder. After the War, Hayes returned to UCLA, where he earned his M.A. in mathematics in 1949, and his Ph.D. in mathematics in 1952. In 1969, Joseph Becker and Robert Hayes started Becker and Hayes Incorporated, with the purpose of creating an interlibrary network for the State of Washington. Hayes discusses the obstacles he and Becker overcame to accomplish that task, and goes on to recount his work with NCLIS and the SILC system. Hayes concludes the interview with his interpretation of the relationship between information science and library science, and the importance of libraries and librarians.
The interview traces Richard Heckert's early education and training, from high school and Miami University to Army work as a chemist at Oak Ridge, where management experience influenced his pursuit of a business career. He discusses safety considerations and atomic bomb work and reflects on dropping the bomb and developing atomic energy. Next the interview turns to Heckert's graduate career at the University of Illinois, his interest in organic chemistry, work and relationship with mentor Harold Snyder, and considerations in selecting a research chemist position at DuPont. The majority of the interview details Heckert's experience and rise through management at DuPont: early work with TCNE and tricyanovinyl compounds for dyeing; and various positions at DuPont's Spruance, Clinton, and Circleville plants and in the Film and Plastics Departments.
Upon receiving his Ph.D. under Alan Portis, Alan Heeger took an assistant professorship at the University of Pennsylvania’s physics department. At Penn Heeger’s interests included spin-wave theory, metal physics, the Kondo problem, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in magnetic materials. Then in 1973, Heeger began investigating polysulfur nitride along with Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa that led to seminal publications on conducting polymers. After twenty years at the University of Pennsylvania, Heeger moved to the University of California at Santa Barbara’s physics department, where he continued to conduct his research and collaboration with other scientists.
Madeline Henderson worked with James Perry and Allen Kent compiling and researching possibilities for a standard chemical notation system for IUPAC selection. Her search for terms for semantic factoring took her throughout the country, where she met many others involved with scientific information, including Eugene Garfield, Claire Schultz, and Saul Herner. She, Perry, and Kent initiated the use of telegraphic abstracts. After working with the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a research analyst, Henderson joined the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1972. She received the Watson-Davis award in 1989 for her service to the American Society for Information Science (ASIS). Henderson concludes the interview with reflections on her fellowship with the American Association for the Advancement of Science and thoughts on pioneers in the field of information science.
David Hercules describes his youth in Somerset, Pennsylvania, and his childhood curiosity with science. Hercules began his professional career at Lehigh University as an assistant professor. He describes how he built a spectroflurometer at Lehigh and did research on photo-induced luminescence. Hercules used ESCA and XPS [x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy] to investigate a variety of phenomena, including heterogeneous catalysis. He also consulted for the Central Intelligence Agency, Instrumentation Laboratories, W.S. Merrill and Company, and Exxon Mobil Corporation. Hercules moved to the University of Georgia after six years at MIT. He then describes the position of analytical chemistry within the chemistry department and the variety of instrumentation that he was able to work with in Georgia. After receiving a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship, he was able to study at Northwestern University with Robert L. Burwell Jr. To continue his work on catalysis, Hercules moved to the University of Pittsburgh [Pitt] after seven years in Georgia. He got to work with an impressive variety of instrumentation at Pitt, and consulted for W.S. Merrill and Exxon.
In 1948, Herner took a job at the engineering and science library at New York University, where he was first introduced to special libraries and the SLA. Two years later, Herner moved to the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, and he began developing an interest in user studies. He discusses his involvement in a number of organizations, including the ACS, and his colleagues in information science. In 1953, Herner joined the Atlantic Research Corporation. While there, he began to form his own company, now known as Herner and Company.
Gerhard Herzberg, over the course of his education, studied with Hans Rau, James Franck and Max Born in the fields of physics and spectroscopy. Herzberg held academic positions at Darmstadt Technische Universität, University of Saskatchewan, University of Chicago, and the National Research Council of Canada and won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1971.
Michael W. Hill received a B.S. and M.Sc. in chemistry and became head of Morgan Crucible Group's physics laboratory, but was drawn to the information and documentation side of the field. Hill first became assistant keeper in the National Reference Library of Science and Invention, and later moved on to the British Museum and the British Library.
J. Roger Hirl studied liberal arts and business in college, but entered chemical industry due to a job for Skelly Oil Company. Hirl moved on to Olin Mathieson Chemical Company (later known as Olin Corporation), where he was notably active in litigation regarding DDT sediments and mercury emissions. In 1983, Hirl joined Occidental Chemical Corporation and became interested in environmental concerns, most notably including his involvement in the Love Canal situation.
Carrol A. Hochwalt studied at the University of Dayton, where he received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering. After his university studies, Hochwalt got a position at Dayon Metal Products, where Hochwalt worked with Charles Kettering and Thomas Midgley, Jr., on lead tetraethyl and other antiknock compounds. Hochwalt moved on to Monsanto Company, where he oversaw research development.
J. Paul Hogan received a B.S. in chemistry and physics and first taught high school and undergraduate chemistry and physics, but spent most of his career with Phillips Petroleum Company. At Phillips, Hogan worked primarily with polymers and collaborated with Grant Bailey, Alfred Clark, and Robert L. Banks, with whom he discovered polypropylene.
David P. Holveck begins his oral history by discussing his childhood in Philadelphia and his initial intent on becoming a physical therapist. After three years in the Navy, Holveck took a sales position at Blood Plasma and Components, and moved on to marketing, management, and executive positions at Abbott Laboratories, Corning Glass Works, General Electric Company, Centocor, and Johnson and Johnson. Holveck describes his involvement in the biotech industry, the evolution of X-ray technology, as well as the development of products such as Centoxin, Remicade, and ReoPro.
Masao Horbia begins his oral history by discussing his childhood, schooling, and life during World War II in Japan, where Horiba earned a B.S. in physics and established his own laboratory, Horiba Radio Laboratory (later incorporated as HORIBA, Ltd.). Horiba's company built and improved upon a pH meter, among various other products, and, by the 1960s, began producing Hitachi, Ltd's analytical instrumentation, as well as a new analyzer for testing automobile emissions. HORIBA, Ltd. went public in 1971,and Horiba reflects on his still-thriving business and innovations in corporate management.
Hoyt C. Hottel begins his interview by discussing his early education and interest in rubber chemistry, and how both factored in to his decision to attend Indiana University for chemistry and Massachusetts Institute of Technology for chemical engineering. Hottel discusses his substantial experience in World Warr II work on flamethrowers, incendiary bombs, and smoke obscuration and several jobs in industry, as well as his long tenure as a professor and director of the fuel and gas engineering program at MIT. Additionally, Hottel reflects on his extensive research on solar energy and gas turbine combustion.
Willis Humphreys describes his long tenure as Production Supervisor with Beckman Instruments, Incorporated. Humphreys worked on the electronics for many of the company's instruments, including the Helipot and the Model R pH meter. Humphreys also reflects on the intense World War II production of new instruments and the evolution of electronics technology.
Charles Hurd begins his oral history by discussing his early life and his later educational and professional experiences, including his Ph.D. work in organic chemistry at Princeton University and his summer job in Thomas Edison's laboratory. Hurd was recruited to Northwestern University by Frank Whitmore and remained there for his entire career, while consulting for various companies. Hurd reflects on his research, teaching and creation of Molecular Models as a teaching tool, and the negative public perception of chemical industry.
J. Franklin Hyde discusses his university studies in chemistry, which culminated in a Ph.D. in organic chemistry with Roger Adams and a postdoctoral at Harvard University. Hyde accepted a position at Corning Glass Works as a research chemist and later became the manager of the organic laboratory. Hyde later joined Dow Corning Corporation, where he continued management and research on equilibrium hydrolysis and bond rearrangement in siloxanes.
James D. Idol discusses his early interest in chemistry and decision to pursue chemistry in higher education, which led to a position with Standard Oil of Ohio. Idol pioneered an economically advantageous process for the production of acrylonitrile and played a role in the commercialization of the process. Idol moved on to Ashland Chemical Company, where he developed the propylene-CO process for methyl methacrylate, and in 1988 became a professor at Rutgers University.
Robert T. "Ted" Jenkins begins his oral history by discussing his early life and his years at California Institute of Technology, where he reached bachelor's and master's degrees. Jenkins was recruited by Gordon Moore to work for Fairchild Semiconductor and left a short time later to follow Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce to Noyce-Moore Electronics, later called Intel. Jenkins reflects on his lengthy career at Intel and his work on blue LED, early microprocessor chips, and other products.
Keith R. Jennings begins his oral history by discussing his youth and education in the United Kingdom, including his chemistry studies at University of Oxford, where he worked with Jack Wilfrid Linnett, and his postdoctoral position with Robert Cevetanovic at the National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada. Jennings took a position at the University of Sheffield and moved on to the University of Warwick. Jennings reflects on his lengthy career at the University of Warwick, his research on mass spectrometry and the field of mass spectrometry in general, and his notable collaborators and peers.
E. William Jensen begins his interview by discussing how his early life in Denmark, and his education, which culminated with a master's degree in solid state physics and petrology at Columbia University, influenced his future career in the technology industry. Jensen began his career at General Transistor Corporation and left to form Geoscience Nuclear Division of Geoscience Instruments Company, where he competed with industrial giants such as Rohm & Haas Company, Merck, and Monsanto Company. In later ventures, Jensen was part of the development of polishing glass for televisions and the Love Glove and founded a new company, Qoro LLC.
John W. Johnstone begins his oral history with a discussion of his early life and education, including a bachelor's degree in chemistry and physics from Hartwick College. Johnstone began his career at Hooker Chemical Company as a sales representative, but quickly moved up the ranks and became Group Vice President before leaving the company for Airco Inc.. Johnstone joined Olin Corporation in 1979, where he worked for successful re-engineering and expansion of the company and addressed rising environmental concerns; Johnstone concludes the interview by discussing the future of research and development in the chemical industry.
Jean C. Jones discusses how she began working at Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation and her early interactions with Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce. Jones became full-time secretary for Fairchild and made the move to Intel Corporation. Jones describes her daily work at Fairchild and Intel and her interactions with Moore, Noyce, and Andrew Grove, among others.
Madeleine M. Joullié begins her interview by describing her early life and education in Brazil followed by her higher education in the United States, with a bachelor's degree at Simmons College and master's and doctoral degrees in chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, where she was advised by Allan R. Day. Joullié discusses her career in the organic chemistry department at the University of Pennsylvania, including her thoughts on teaching, her students, and her work with Mildred Cohn to implement affirmative action guidelines that led to more hiring of women and minorities to tenure-track positions at Penn. Additionally, Joullié discusses her consulting work, her research, and chemistry textbooks, including Organic Chemistry, which Joullié co-authored with Day.
William H. Joyce discusses his interest in chemistry, which led to a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Pennsylvania State University, and the influence of his parents, which led to interest in business and an M.B.A. and Ph.D. from New York University. Joyce had a lengthy career at Union Carbide, where he rose from Product Development Engineer to Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and made several contributions to the field, including the UNIPOL process for creating high-density polyethylene. Joyce reflects on the chemical industry, his philosophy to being successful in a large corporation, and his work for the Nalco Company.
Frederick J. Karol discusses his early interest in chemistry, as well as his B.S. in chemistry at Boston University and his two years of military service. Karol joined Union Carbide Corporation in 1956 , rising in the ranks to Senior Corporate Fellow, the position he holds presently; Karol took a brief hiatus to pursue a Ph.D. in organic chemistry at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Karol discusses his lengthy career at Union Carbide, including the development of the gas phase process for making high pressure polyethylene replacement products, linear low density polyethylene development, among other research developments, as well as Union Carbide's history and professional philosophies.
Donald L. Katz discusses his family background and his educational background, including his studies in chemical engineering at University of Michigan, which culminated in a Ph.D.. While Katz initially joined Phillips Petroleum Company as a research engineer after his education, he was soon invited back to the University of Michigan for an academic appointment. Katz remained at Michigan for over fifty years, and he reflects on his research, including heat transfer investigations, and various aspects of chemical engineering education and the academic chemical engineering profession.
Raphael Katzen discusses his family and educational background, including his bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Katzen met Donald Othmer while an undergraduate, and Othmer was a significant mentor for Katzen, providing him with summer employment, taking him on off-campus consultations, and requesting permission for Katzen to obtain his master's degree in absentia while working at Northwood Chemical Company. Katzen also discusses his work on acid hydrolysis of wood in the production of ethanol, the creation of his own company, KATZEN International, Inc., and his consulting and collaborative work.
Wilbur I. Kaye begins his interview by discussing his early interest in science and instrumentation and his education, which culminated in a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Illinois. Kaye took a position at Tennessee Eastman Company after graduation and promptly set up a physics laboratory; Kaye discusses the instrumentation in his laboratory and his publications on gas chromatography. Kaye left Tennessee Eastman for Beckman Instruments, Inc., and reflects on his modifications to the DU spectrophotometer and other instrumentation at Beckman Instruments.
Michael A. Kelly discusses his early interest in radio and television electronics, and his education, including a master's degree at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and a Ph.D. in nuclear physics at University of California, Berkeley. Kelly joined the Hewlett-Packard Company after completion of his Ph.D. as a research scientist and developed and refined the first ESCA instrumentation. Kelly also discusses his subsequent positions at Surface Science Laboratories, Kevex Corporation, Stanford University, and he reflects on the impact of ESCA and innovation during his career.
Robert Kennedy discusses his career in mechanical engineering, beginning with his education at Cornell University. After graduation, Kennedy took a position at Union Carbide Corporation, working first in the metallurgical industries and later in management, including a position as head of Linde Air Products Company. Kennedy discusses rebuilding the image of the chemical industry as part of the Chemical Manufacturers Association, education, and family.
Chalmer Kirkbride, influenced by his brother-in-law, a chemist for Sherwin-Williams, studied chemical engineering at the University of Michigan and initially worked for Standard Oil of Indiana before moving on to positions at Pan American Transport Company and Magnolia Petroleum Corporation, among others. Kirkbride was appointed as the first distinguished engineering professor at Texas A&M University, a position he held briefly before returning to industry. Kirkbride discusses his interest in environmental issues as well as recent activities as part of Kirkbride Associates.
William S. Knowles begins his oral history by discussing his early life during the Great Depression and his education, including time at Harvard University and Columbia University. Knowles spent the majority of his career at Monsanto Company, where he moved from studies of vanillin to research on steroid chemistry and L-Dopa, among other topics. Knowles discusses the many projects he worked on while at Monsanto, his 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the challenges of being an industrial scientist.
Izaak Kolthoff begins his interview by discussing his early life in Holland, his education, and the factors influencing his decision to become an analytical chemist. Kolthoff details the effects of the McCarthy era on his career and accusations of Communist sympathies. Kolthoff ends the interview by discussing his research, including his work on crystal surfaces, and his participation in synthetic rubber research during World War II.
Stephanie Kwolek starts this interview by describing her family background. Her father's early death meant that her mother had to work to support Kwolek and her brother, who later became a chemical engineer. At the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Kwolek shifted her interests from medicine to chemistry. Deciding to enter industry, she accepted a position with the Rayon Department of DuPont at Buffalo. There, she started her career in polymer synthesis and worked with Izard, Wittbecker, and Morgan. When the laboratory moved to Wilmington, Kwolek was associated with the low ¬temperature polymerization program. In the interview, Kwolek then discusses the nylon rope trick, DuPont promotion policy, and liquid crystalline polymers. She concludes with her reflections on colleagues and DuPont consultants.
Stephanie Kwolek joined DuPont in 1946, the same year she earned her B.S. in chemistry at Carnegie-Mellon University. She spent much of her time working on polymers, including aliphatic and aromatic polyamides. At DuPont, she worked with 1,4-B and was able to get a high molecular weight polymer. It was eventually discovered that the polymer spun beautifully and was quite strong. This polymer became Kevlar. Kwolek describes industry competition, the testing and scale-up of Kevlar, and the problems of confidentiality. She further discusses the relationship between Kevlar and Paul Flory's theory of liquid polymer crystals.
Joseph Labovsky begins his oral history with a discussion of his family and early life in Ukraine, as well as his recollection of his family's move to the United States. Labovsky was trained as a master electrician, and went on to receive a bachelor's degree in industrial chemical engineering. Labovsky speaks at length about his career at DuPont, including the development of nylon and his mentors and colleagues, including Wallace Carothers and Paul Flory.
Keith J. Laidler discusses his childhood and education, including his time at Oxford University, where Laidler received training and undergraduate and graduate degrees in chemistry and physical chemistry, and as a graduate student in physical chemistry at Princeton University. Laidler recalls the inception and development of the transition-state theory as well as his own research. Laidler concludes his interview with recollections of several eminent chemists, including Cyril Hinshelwood, Henry Eyring, and Hugh Stott Taylor.
Ralph Landau begins his oral history by discussing his childhood and education, including his time as an undergraduate in chemical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania and as a graduate student at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Landau recalls his time at Kellex Corporation—where he worked on the Manhattan Project—as well as M.W. Kellogg Corporation, Scientific Design Company, and Halcon International.
Jay T. Last begins his oral history by discussing his early life and education, including his undergraduate work at University of Rochester and his graduate work in the von Hippel lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Last first joined the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory but was part of the "Traitorous Eight" to form Fairchild Semiconductor; Last later worked at Amelco Corporation and Teledyne Technologies, among other endeavors. Last speaks about the business climate of Silicon Valley as well as the American and international semiconductor industries.
Joshua Lederberg begins his three-part interview by discussing his early years in New York and the early influence of science on his education. Lederberg received his bachelor's degree in biology from Columbia University, worked with Francis Ryan on Neurospora and E. coli, enlisted with the United States Navy, and received his Ph.D. in microbiology from Yale University. Lederberg discusses his career in academia, including his time at the University of Wisconsin, as well as his Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1958.
Joshua Lederberg begins the interview by discussing his involvement in contamination issues of planetary exploration. Lederberg recalls his work to develop alternatives to the "man-in-space" program, as well as his time on several national committees for both planetary exploration and health-related matters. Additionally, Lederberg discusses writing his column, the environment at Stanford University during the Cold War, and his thoughts on U.S. defense projects.
Norman Li discusses his early life in China and Taiwan, as well as his education, which included a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from National Taiwan University as well as an M.S. from Wayne State University and a Ph.D. from Stevens Institute of Technology. Li reflects on his career in industry, including his time at Exxon Research and Engineering Company, where he received a combined total of 44 patents on either hydrocarbon separations or facilitated transport. Li also discusses his move to research administration and the future of chemical R&D.
Maurice B. Line discusses his education and early career, including his bachelor's and master's degrees in Classics from Oxford University and his first job as a library trainee at Oxford's Bodleian Library. Line also discusses his various library positions and some of his notable accomplishments: assisting in the creation of the first automated acquisition system in Britain, directing INFROSS (a study of social scientists' information requirements) and DISISS (a study on designs of information systems). Additionally, Line speaks about the constraints of working in the public sector, as well as the importance of technology in making libraries more accessible to users.
Max D. Liston discusses his early career and education, including bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota, his first job at Chrysler Corporation, and his master's in mechanical engineering from the Chrysler Institute. Liston transferred to General Motors, then Perkin Elmer, and then formed the Liston-Folb company (later Liston-Becker) with Morris Folb, where his projects included three atmospheric-analyzer models for U.S. Navy submarines and the Model 16 capnograph. Liston discusses the Beckman Instruments acquisition of Liston-Becker, his notable projects while at Beckman, including the development of automobile-emissions analyzers for smog tests in Los Angeles, California, and the formation of Liston Scientific.
William F. Little discusses his early life in a small town and education, including his discovery of chemistry at Lenoir-Rhyne College, where he received a bachelor's degree in mathematics, biology, and chemistry, and his graduate studies at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where Little received an M.S. in physical chemistry and Ph.D. in organic chemistry. Little recalls his lengthy career at a few institutions: North Carolina, where Little began as a professor and later, as chairman of the chemistry department, revised the curriculum and got a new laboratory built; the Research Triangle Foundation, where Little helped establish the Research Triangle Park. Additionally little recalls his various administrative responsibilities and assesses his career in North Carolina.
Robert E. Lorenzini discusses his childhood, early aptitude in engineering and science, and undergraduate and graduate degrees at Stanford University in materials science. After graduation, Lorenzini was recruited by Rheem Semiconductors, where his work led to Rheem's own crystal growing furnace and ability to produce its own silicon wafers; Lorenzini's time at Rheem was followed by stints at Allegheny Electronics Chemical Company, Knapic Electrophysics, and Elmat Corporation. Lorenzini reflects on his time at Siltec Corporation as Chairman and CEO, as well as his time at SunPower Corporation, which he founded with Stanford professor Richard Swanson.
Marinus Los discusses his early life in the Netherlands and England, as well as his education at Edinburgh University, where he first became interested in biochemistry and received a Ph.D. in that field. Los took a research position at the National Research Council in Canada and conducted research in the structural chemistry of alkaloids and plants before moving on to a research chemist position at American Cyanamid Company. Los discusses his research on imidazolinoes, a type of plant growth regulators, and its results: the herbicides Assert, Arsenal, and Pursuit, as well as a National Medal of Technology.
Robert Luciano his early life and education in New York, as well as his time at City College of New York, his Army service in the Pentagon, and his law degree at the University of Michigan. After several years of practicing law, Luciano accepted a position at Ciba Corporation, where he moved through the ranks to eventually become President of the Pharmaceuticals Division, and later took a position at Schering-Plough Corporation as Senior Vice President of Administration. Luciano discusses research and development at Schering-Plough, his attempts to increase understanding in the pharmaceutical industry that failure in cutting-edge research programs should be expected and tolerated, and the future of the smaller pharmaceutical companies.
Henry Earl Lumpkin discusses his trajectory from his Texas childhood to his career in mass spectrometry. Lumpkin received his bachelor's degree in chemistry at Southwestern Texas State University and joined the U.S. Army Air Corps, where he took graduate classes in meteorology before taking a position at Humble Oil and Refining Company, where Lumpkin was able to take courses, publish, and take part in innovative research. Lumpkin also discusses his role in the American Society for Testing and Materials, as well as in the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, and his thoughts on the future of mass spectrometry.
Alan G. MacDiarmid begins his interview by discussing his childhood and the two books that sparked his interest in chemistry. MacDiarmid, with degrees from University of New Zealand, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and University of Cambridge, focused his work on inorganic chemistry and accepted a faculty position at University of Pennsylvania. MacDiarmid discusses his lengthy career at Penn, his Nobel Prize-winning work with Hideki Shirakawa and Alan Heeger, and the benefits of interdisciplinary research.
John D. Macdougall summarizes his graduate and doctoral work before discussing his career at Sprague Electric Company in the research and development department, specifically working on ion implementation. At Sprague, Macdougall built a permanent magnet velocity filter and scanning system, worked on PNP transistors, implanted TTL circuits and linears circuits, and aided in the developmental progress of MOS [metal oxide semiconductors] to MOSFETS [meta oxide semiconductor field effect transistors], among other projects. Macdougall also discusses his move to the Worcester facility, the sale of Sprague to General Cable, and his work in engineering management at General Cable.
Robert Maddin begins the interview by discussing his childhood and education and early work experiences including his time at Brooklyn College, his B.Sc. in metallurgical engineering, his Dr.Eng in metallurgy at Yale University, and his Armed Forces service during World War II. Maddin spent several years teaching at Johns Hopkins University before moving on to the University of Pennsylvania, where he was the head of the metallurgy department. Maddin describes starting up the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter and his shift to the history of science, including his second career at Harvard University's anthropology department.
Boris Magasanik begins the interview by discussing his childhood years, move to the United States from Austria just before World War II. Magasanik's graduate studies in biochemistry at Pennsylvania State University were interrupted by World War II, in which Magasanik served; he resumed his studies at Columbia University postwar and researched inositols and RNA. Magasanik discusses his career at Harvard University, as well as his time at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Magasanik is still a faculty member and founded the Center for Cancer Research.
Kenneth E. Manchester discusses his service in World War II and his educational experiences, including his A.B. at San Jose State College,his M.S. and Ph.D. at Stanford University, and postdoctoral fellowship under Eric Hutchinson. Manchester first joined Shell Development Company and later moved to Sprague Electric Company, where he directed a research group that pioneered in the development of ion implantation and later headed semiconductor research and quality assurance. He concludes the interview with his thoughts on the need for chemists in semiconductor development.
Leo Mandelkern begins the interview by discussing his early life and education at Cornell University, including his graduate work and associations with J. G. Kirkwood, Franklin Long, and Paul Flory. Mandelkern also recalls his career at the National Bureau of Standards as well as his recent work at Florida State University. He concludes by commenting on methods of solving scientific controversies.
Robert J. Manning begins the interview by discussing his educational background in chemistry and his United States Navy research on rocket fuel. Manning relates the details of his lengthy career at Beckman Instruments, Inc., where he gravitated toward infrared instrumentation. Manning also reflects on education and information sharing at Beckman.
Rudolph A. Marcus discusses his early life and education, including his time at McGill University, where he received a Ph.D. in chemistry and worked on World War II-related research with Carl Winkler, and at University of North Carolina, where in his postdoctoral research he began to focus on theory, specifically RRKM theory. Marcus also discusses his time as a professor at Brooklyn Polytechnic University, including his colleagues and his interest in electrostatics and polyelectrolytes, and his later position at University of Illinois. Marcus concludes his interview by speaking about his most current academic position at California Institute of Technology and his thoughts on his electron transfer work.
Herman Mark begins his three-part interview by discussing his research at the Universities of Vienna and Berlin, as well as at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, where Mark collaborated with various colleagues and used x-ray diffraction to establish the crystal structures of small organic molecules and metals. Mark also discusses his time at I.G. Farben, where he established a polymer laboratory and, due to the worsening political climate, left for Vienna to set up the first comprehensive polymer research and training institute. Mark recalls setting up the Polymer Research Institute at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and his role in the formation of the literature of polymer science and technology.
Russell E. Marker discusses his early life, including his childhood in a farming community, as well as his education, including his time at the University of Maryland. Marker recalls his positions at the Naval Powder Factory and the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, where he devised the octane rating system. Marker also talks about his interest in synthesizing human hormones from plants and his travels to Mexico to examine indigenous plant life.
John C. Martin begins the interview by describing Gilead when he first joined in 1990. Martin recalls his first meeting with Gordon E. Moore, who joined the board around the same period as Martin. Martin then reflectes on serving on the Gilead board with Donald Rumsfeld and Moore, and also explains how Moore’s experiences at Intel helped shaped polices of the compensation committee and audit committee on which he served. Lastly Martin speaks about Gilead’s no-profit tiered pricing policy and the impact it has on developing countries, as well as final thoughts on Moore.
Carl Marvel discusses his early life, including his youth on a farm, and his education, including his undergraduate years at Illinois Wesleyan College and his graduate studies at University of Illinois. Marvel recalls his consulting work for DuPont and his World War II work, including his direction of the federal rubber program and anti-malarial and chemical warfare agents research. Marvel concludes by speaking about his most recent research in polymers, his family, hobbies, and involvement with the American Chemical Society.
Thomas Mastin begins this interview by discussing his childhood in Indiana and the untimely death of his father. He then explains the origins of his interest in chemistry, his early career at Lubrizol, and his transition from research into management. Mastin shares his opinions on management philosophy and the place of research in the chemical industry. Finally, Mastin reflects on the changes in the industry, his receipt of the Society of Chemistry Award, and his continued interest in photography and nature study.
Mayo traces his professional career as a research chemist with Du Pont, as an instructor at the University of Chicago where his primary role was the supervision of Morris Kharasch's research group, as a group leader at U.S. Rubber during and after World War II, as a research associate at General Electric, and finally as a fellow at SRI International. He also comments on the rise of free radical chemistry and the value of applying basic research to practical problems.
McAfee discusses his career in chemical engineering, having studied at the University of Texas and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and having worked as a research and operating engineer for Universal Oil Products Company before accepting a position as technical specialist with Gulf Oil Corporation in Port Arthur. He served as Chairman of the Board and CEO of Gulf for six years before retiring in 1981. His career with Gulf took him to Pennsylvania, London, and Toronto.
McBrayer discusses his studies in chemical engineering at Vanderbilt University and his career at Exxon, eventually becoming president of the corporation. During his years at Exxon Chemical, McBrayer was heavily involved in environmental issues; he helped to set up Clean Sites, Inc. and has been active in the Chemical Manufacturers Association Responsible Care program. In 1992, the same year that he was awarded the Chemical Industry Medal, McBrayer retired from Exxon Chemical.
Keith McKennon discusses his youth and interests in research and chemistry, as well as his subsequent years at Oregon State University. McKennon reflects on his multiple career paths at Dow Chemical Company and Shell Chemical Company, from working in a sales position to research management and then as a Director of government relations and public issues. McKennon describes his next major career turn—dealing with public concern about dioxin in Agent Orange, and later, at Dow Corning, with the silicon implant affair.
McLafferty discusses his upbringing as he continued his education in chemistry in an accelerated degree program at the University of Nebraska during World War II. Having enlisted in the war and after months of combat, McLafferty returned to Nebraska to earn his Master’s degree and later his doctoral degree at Cornell University. Shifting his interests to organic chemistry, he entered industry at the Dow Chemical Company where he was introduced to mass spectrometry, a field that figures prominently in much of McLafferty’s collaborations and scientific work. Eventually, he moved into academia, teaching and researching at Purdue University and then Cornell University.
McMillan discusses his upbringing in Montebello, California, having expressed an early interest in science, eventually attaining a B.A. in chemistry at UCLA, a M.S. at Columbia, and later on a Ph.D. in chemical physics. McMillan was employed in the Special Alloys and Materials Project, a forerunner to the Manhattan Project, but later joined the faculty of UCLA while working for the RAND Corporation as a consultant to the U.S. military. Also having worked with the Armed Forces in Vietnam, McMillan contracted hepatitis and developed blood chemistry analysis. Some of his personal research projects have included: global warming and ozone depletion issues; atmospheric studies of Venus; and Neutrinos work.
Robert L. McNeil, Jr. discusses the evolution of his family’s drugstore, the Firm of Robert McNeil and later McNeil Laboratories, after earning his B.S. in physiological chemistry and bacteriology at Yale University. Returning to Philadelphia, McNeil enrolled in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Temple University’s Graduate Pharmacy School, thus beginning his career in the family business and eventually becoming head of a successful pharmaceutical company. As a prominent figure in the pharmaceutical field, McNeil introduced top-selling pharmaceuticals in the nation, like Butisol® and eventually Tylenol®, and became president of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange and the Philadelphia branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association.
Carver A. Mead discusses his early interest in electronics, his studies in electrical engineering at the California Institute of Technology, and his long history of entrepreneurial activity that continues to the present day. Mead conducted transistor research and pioneered automated design methodologies for VLSI devices.
A.J. Meadows discusses his reasons for studying both astronomy and the history of science, and how that led to his appointment in both departments at the University of Leicester. Meadows also comments on his initial interest in information science, later establishing two centers for communication studies, and becoming associated with the Institute for Information Scientists [IIS], the Library Association [LA], and Aslib. He then discusses online communication’s impact on information science with the example of BioMedNet and the e-print system, his relationship with Donald J. Urquhart, and the definition of the words “information,” “documentation,” and “library.”
After earning his B.S. in chemical engineering at Case Western Reserve University, Arther I. Mendolia began to work at DuPont as a research engineer but later rose in managerial positions such as Vice President of Explosives. DuPont recommended Mendolia for a position in the U.S. Department of Defense [DOD], where he learned more about management, organization, finances, and worked personally with President Gerald Ford. Mendolia later became involved in corporate ventures, becoming president of Halcon International and chairman of Oxirane, and later establishing his own chemical company, CasChem which would later be known as Cambrex Corporation.