Title and Description Page
Early Years 1
Family background. Siblings. Interest in chemistry. High-school influences. Attending Northwestern University. Desire to attend medical school. Commitment to medical research. Family perceptions.
Educational Career 10
Meeting Joy (wife). Marriage in 1950. Experiences at Northwestern. Developing an interest in physical chemistry. Attending Princeton University. Charles Phelps Smyth. Patrick L. McGeer. Moving away from academia into industry. Paul J. Flory.
Early Professional Career 21
Working at 3M Company. Poly-1,1-dihydroperfluorobutyl. Encouragement of ideas. Recognition for innovation. Scotchguard. Frank A. Bovey. Fifteen-percent mandate. Movement into management. Richard Drew. Fixed responsibility. Leaving 3M for Litton Medical Systems. Medical-imaging equipment. Becoming President of Litton. Rethinking career direction. Decision to leave Litton for Abbott Laboratories.
Biotechnology Beginnings 38
Fascination with recombinant DNA. Leaving Abbott for Amgen, Inc. Obtaining venture capital. Martin Cline. Willingness to take risks. Emergence of biotechnology awareness. Cetus. Charles Weissmann. Interferon and erythropoietin. Gene Goldwasser. Scaling-up. Epogen. Working with academic institutions. Expanding research.
Career in Biotechnology 58
Involvement in Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO). Government interaction. Educating public about biotechnology. Fostering better public understanding. Relationship between BIO and Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (PHARMA). Developing and structuring a biotech company. Recruiting scientists. Product development and completion. Importance of internal education. Training programs. Partnerships.
Scientific Developments 80
Neupogen development. Interleukin-2. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) research. Food and Drug Administration. Importance of venture capitalists. Robert Swanson. Patenting issues.
Leaving Amgen for ICOS Corporation. Raising money. Future of biotechnology.