Title and Description Page
Family, Early Education, College 1
Father. Living in Wisconsin. High school in Illinois. Family support. Early interest in chemistry. Influence of Cornelius Osgood. Father's influence. Work in the west and interest in outdoors. Chess. Going to Northwestern University. Influence of chemistry faculty. Interest in mathematics. Choice of a graduate school. Wrestling in college.
Graduate School: Princeton 3
Choice of mentor: Everett Wallis. Chemists at Princeton. Research problem: Bromination of steroid ketones. Henry Eyring. Financial support. Completing degree. Going to work for Merck in cortisone program.
Merck: The Synthesis of Cortisone 5
First supervisor: Karl Folkers. First salary. First laboratory in 50G. Working with E. C. Kendall at Mayo Clinic. Return to Rahway. Failure to prove Kendall's introduction of oxygen at C-11. Threat to job. Proving Kendall wrong. The synthesis of cortisone. Identity with natural product. Supply of intermediates from Development Group. Lectures by Louis Fieser. Continued communication with Kendall. Consulting with Jack Lane, Everett Wallis, and Karl Folkers. Learning chromatography from Eric Stiller. The Committee of 14. Contact with Randolph Major.
Merck: More Cortisone 12
Effect of the Upjohn microbiological oxidation of C-11. Merck synthesis of cortisone economically viable. Introduction of Decadron. Hench discovery of effect of cortisone on arthritis. Search for alternative methods for making cortisone. Work on the "total" synthesis of cortisone. Searching for a use for cortisone: Supplying clinicians with cortisone. Crash program to produce abundant supplies of cortisone. John Chemerda. The cyanohydrin method for synthesizing cortisone side chain. Division between Research and Development. Purpose of the "total" synthesis effort. Effort to supply sufficient cortisone; problems.
Responsibilities as Assistant Director of Organic Research. Karl Folkers. Co-workers. Turnover of personnel. Director of Medicinal Research: Circumstances leading to appointment. Offers of academic appointments. Transition to medicinal chemistry. Co-workers. Per Frolich. Constant expectations of Merck management. Isolation of aldosterone. Decision making about research problems. Interdisciplinary approach. Al Zeissig. Merger with Sharp & Dohme.
Merck: Steroid Anti-inflammatories 20
Director of Synthetic Organic Chemistry: A change in title. Dexamethasone. Competition from Schering: Prednisone. Glen Arth. Charles Winter. Schering synthesis of a 16-methyl compound: A patent problem. Production of injectible anti-inflammatory.
Animal Drugs 23
Amprolium: Ed Rogers. The stealing of amprolium: Robert Aries. Thiabendazole: Horace Brown. Success through Folkers' vitamin program. Relationship of Synthetic Chemistry with Therapeutic Institute.
Non-steroidal Anti-infammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) 26
Decision to seek non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. Karl Folkers. T. Y. Shen. The search for NSAIDs. Indocin. Clinical problems with Indocin.
Merck: Organization 29
Reporting to Denkewalter. Becoming Executive Director of Fundamental Research: Responsibilities. Promotion to Vice President. Presidents of Merck & Co.: George Merck, James Kerrigan, Jack Connor. Changes affected by the Kefauver-Harris amendments. Henry Gadsden. Randolph Major: Mission. Max Tishler: Energy, intellect, style.
Micellaneous, Dolobid, Clinoril 33
Prenisolone attached to a glycoside. Ralph Hirschmann. Ribonuclease. Changing management. Dolobid: Impetus to find a better aspirin. Dr. Bauer. Clinoril. Synthesizing 5-fluorophenylsalicylic acid. Clinical testing failure in Japan. Synthesizing Dolobid: Al Matzuk. Clinical testing of Dolobid. Clinoril: T. Y. Shen. Charles Winter. Sarett's reagent.
President of MSDRL 39
Goals: Improving the Medical Division; improving interdivision relationships; getting into the anti-biotic field. Fosfomycin and cefoxitin. Finding new drugs. Drugs for well people. Benign prostatic hypertrophy: Glen Arth and the origins of Proscar. Start of Mevacor: Al Alberts and Roy Vagelos. Hunting for successor as President. Organizational training. Dearth of products: Changing the organization. Diversification. David Jacobus. The Pfister-Denkewalter affair. Sarett threat to leave Merck in early 1960s. Organization after Pfister-Denkewalter.
Vice President for Science and Technology 48
Leaving research. Nature of new job. Attempt to buy Genentech. Feelings about new position; comparison with Max Tishler. Attempt to establish new research unit. Corporate long-range planning. Establishing Japan connection. Changing FDA attitude.
Other Positions 50
Serving on Reagan transition team. Reagan's attitude toward science. United Nations Panel. Offer of position as Director of National Institutes of Health.
Leaving Merck in 1982. Building home in Idaho. Career rewards. Children. Academic versus industry positions. Changing attitudes towards industry. Rewards of industry. Serving on boards of small biotechnology companies. Choosing Idaho. Other activitities: Gardening, golf, chess. Advice for young scientists.