Title and Description Page
Early Years 1
Grew up in Berkeley, California. One of four children. Father a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Mother professor of mathematics. Attended public schools.
College Years 7
Attends University of California, Berkeley. Uncertain what to study. Takes sister’s advice to study biology. Does well in chemistry. Declares major in biochemistry. Disappointed in biochemistry, tries physics. Loves physics. Undergraduate lab work in biophysical chemistry with Wayne Hubbell. Membranes. Synthetic chemistry. Nine months as technician in Hubbell’s lab. Becomes very careful as technician.
Graduate School Years 13
Takes Hubbell’s advice to study with Harden McConnell at Stanford University. Synthetic systems. Study of diffusion in membranes led to instrumentation thesis. Large number of papers as graduate student. Interest in immunology. PhD in biophysics.
Postdoctorate Years 18
Enters Leroy Hood’s lab. Immunology and instrumentation. Huge lab. Months of sequencing. Fluorescence to label DNA. Works with Michael Hunkapiller at California Institute of Technology. Applied Biosystems (ABI). Chemistry of dyes. Becomes consultant to ABI. New understanding of relationship between academia and industry. Founds own company, Third Wave Technologies (now Hologic). Paper leads to article in Nature. Patents on invention. European vacation.
Faculty at University of Wisconsin 31
More and better sequencing. Competition from E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company. Electrophoresis. Another laser system. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) on nucleic acids. Array technology. Pyrosequencing. Affymetrix. Gene expression chips. Many genome projects led to diagnosis of problems with instrumentation, not chemistry. Electrospray; optical detection; proteomics. Surface invader arrays. Future of confluence of instrumentation, chemistry, and computation. All driven by computers and lasers. Parallelism. Informatics required to make sense of masses of data. Continuing importance of thinking.