Episode 43: Cause and Effect


This week’s image is courtesy of Lara Ratzlaff.

According to Newton’s third law, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” In this week’s episode we explore causes and their effects in several different ways. We begin with francium—an element that has a half-life of only 22 minutes. Next Gigi Naglak tells us about pheromones in perfumes in Chemistry in your Cupboard. And finally producer Lara Ratzlaff visits an apple orchard and talks to apple researchers to tell us how apples become so satisfyingly crisp. Element of the Week: Francium.

Show Clock

00:00 Opening Credits
00:31 Introduction
01:16 Element of the Week: Francium
03:10 Chemistry in your Cupboard: Pheromone Perfumes
06:11 Feature: The Chemistry of Ripe Apples
10:38 Quote: Ralph Waldo Emerson
10:57 Closing Credits

Resources and References

For more about francium, visit the Los Alamos National Labs Web site.
Check out a report from 20/20 about pheromones and dating.
And more about pheromones from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.


Special thanks go to Jennifer Dionisio for researching the show.

Our theme music is composed by Dave Kaufman. Additional music from the PodSafe Music Network. Additional music is “Nuclear Summer,” by YoungBlood Brass Band, “Just One Night,” by Jeremy Carr, and “Groovilicious,” by Podcast Troubadour.


Posted In: History | Society

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